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Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine

Lviv Polytechnic National University

Institute of Computer Science and Information Technologies


Of Applied Linguistics



Presented by

student of the group Phl-36

Horobiovska Sofiia
Supervised by

Assistant Professor

Levchenko Olena

Lviv 2021

Table of contents

Introduction 3

Chapter 1. Theoretical and methodological background 6

1.1 Theoretical background 6

1.2 Methodological background 10

Chapter 2. Results and discussion 16

2.1 Verbalisation of the concept of MIND in English 16

2.2 Verbalisation of the concept of MIND in Ukrainian 21

2.3 Comparative analysis 26

Conclusions 29

References 31

Abstract 33


Statement of the problem. The history of linguistic scholars has not yet known such a period of intensive development as the entire twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first. It is during this period that a radical rethinking of language and its phenomena in line with the definition of a common ontological platform for language, culture, consciousness, which led to changes in the scientific-linguistic paradigm, the formation of neo-functionalism with its cognitive and communicative directions, formulation of guidelines for language as a reflection human consciousness, thinking, cognition. Furthermore, studies of the deep connection between cognitive structures of cognition and language forms, ways of conceptualizing cultural schemes have increased the attention of linguists to the concept of "concept." Therefore, the primary approach of this work is to study the concept of mind, the structure of the MIND concept, its essence, and periphery in Ukrainian and English. The object of the investigation is the concept Mind in English and Ukrainian.

The subject of the investigation is the verbalizers of the concept MIND in English and Ukrainian.

The topicality of this study is determined, first, because the mind has a special status in human life, and understanding it means the awareness of being as such and the individual being of a particular person. In addition, understanding the mind is a vital worldview, as through the linguistic representation of the mind can get a picture of the modern worldview of a particular people. Second, the concept of MIND is a universal and intercultural unit reflected in different cultures. Reflected in the language of a particular ethnic group, the concept of MIND gives us a code to decipher the national and cultural specifics. Thirdly, being a universal category, the MIND allows revealing the ratio of the national and cultural-specific shares.

The aim and objectives of the study are to study the concept of MIND, represented by linguistic consciousness in English and Ukrainian, to identify similarities and differences in its verbalization. In connection with this goal, the following research objectives were identified:

• Consider theoretical approaches to defining the concept as the basic unit of human mental activity

• Describe the problem of defining the concept in modern linguistics, its properties, and characteristics;

• identify and analyze the field structure of the concept of reason in English and Ukrainian.

Significance of the study. The significance of this article can be proved by the modern interest of the linguistic world of the problem of reflection in the language of the conceptosphere of the people and its basic concepts. This is the main reason for studying the verbalization of the concept of MIND in English and Ukrainian.

Definition of terms. The main terms in this research are concept and mind. There are a lot of different definitions of concept, however, because of their similarity, the general one can be expressed. The concept is a universal entity formed in mind based on direct sensory experience, direct human operations with objects, and verbal communication and interaction with other already formed concepts. The mind is the set of faculties including cognitive aspects such as consciousness, imagination, perception, thinking, intelligence, judgement, language and memory, as well as non-cognitive aspects such as emotion and instinct.

Theoretical frameworks. In recent decades, the term "concept" has become the central unit in scientific works devoted to studying and explicating the "linguistic picture of the world." Concepts have proved to be one of the most relevant aspects of research, confidently entering an active scientific resource, becoming the object of understanding and operation of linguists and psychologists, culturologists, and philosophers. Historically, the doctrine of the concept has its origins in Pierre Abelard (1079-1142), who considers it as a form of "grasping" the meaning, as "a collection of concepts locked in the soul, which perceives language.» Its further development and implementation in various scientific fields took place by rethinking the traditional logical content of the concept and adapting it to research needs. Thus, the Russian philosopher S. Askoldov reconsiders the logical meaning of the concept and gives it linguistic and philosophical content. Continuing to develop the views of S. Askoldov in linguistic and cultural terms, D. Likhachev considers its content. In the '80s, in connection with the translations of works by English-speaking authors, the concept of "concept" was adapted to domestic soil. Becoming one of the key concepts in the modern paradigm of language knowledge, the concepts are used in many works as an essential term. Representatives of cognitive linguistics (O. Babushkin, M. Boldyrev, I. Golubovska, V. Zhayvoronok, O. Kubryakova, Z. Popova, O. Selivanova, Y. Stepanov, I. Sternin) define the concept as a unit of operational consciousness, containing information about a particular object of reality. Another significant area of ​​scientific understanding of the concepts is linguistic and cultural. Its representatives are S. Vorkachev, V. Zhayvoronok, V. Karasik, D. Likhachev, G. Slyshkin, Y. Stepanov, V. Telia, and L. Cherneyko.

Methodology. The following methods were used to solve the set goals and objectives: a descriptive, conceptual, contextual, nd comperative analysis.

Research materials. The main sources used for carrying out the given research are the text of the Max Horkheimer's book “Критика інструментального розуму” and Alfred Binet's book "The Mind and the Brain."

Chapter 1. Theoretical and methodological background

1.1 Theoretical background

Although all the peoples of the world form single humanity, the difference between cultures, peoples, tribes is sometimes very significant. A specific diversity marks people's history, features of their development, a territory of residence, climate, religious beliefs, customs, and life features. Of course, all these factors could not but affect the language. No wonder Wilhelm von Humboldt argued that "the language of the people is its spirit, and the spirit of the people is its language." Being a complex formation, language enters all spheres of life. It is the most important means of communication, the essential way of dividing and transforming the world and the treasury of the collective experience of culture. Speaking of the culture-logical study of language, linguists mean analyzing linguistic phenomena to identify national and cultural specifics. To understand the peculiarities of the worldview of a particular national culture, each researcher necessarily considers the concept of a linguistic picture of the world and its main component - the concept. [8]

One of the tasks of modern linguistics is to comprehend linguistic and speech facts through the prism of lingua-cultural methods of analysis of keywords that form the linguistic picture of the world. [11]

The processes of obtaining, storing and transmitting knowledge about the world are carried out in typical concepts for a particular language. The language-specific way of conceptualizing reality has a national specificity because, as we know, speakers of different languages ​​see the world differently. [11]

A lot is written about the concept today, but it is still defined differently. Some researchers understand it broadly as a universal entity formed in mind based on direct sensory experience, direct human operations with objects, and verbal communication and interaction with other already formed concepts. Other scholars focus on specific points of interpretation of concepts, emphasizing that the latter are often marked by ethnocultural specificity (S. Vorkachev), surrounded by emotional, expressive, and evaluative halo (V. Kolesov) culture enters the mental world. (Yu. Stepanov) and others. [17]

The concept is the basic semantic notion in cognitive linguistics, and this can be exactly what differs cognitive linguistics from alternative areas of semantic research like logical, structural, various works confirm that by foreign, Ukrainian and Russian scholars (C. Goddard, A. Wierzbicka, R. S. Jackendoff, R. W. Langacker, V. A. Maslova, M. Minskyi, A. M. Prykhodko, I. A. Sternin). [3]

The concept is a discrete mental formation, which is the basic unit of human thought code, has a relatively orderly internal structure that is the result of the cognitive activity of the individual and society and carries comprehensive, encyclopedic information about the reflected object or phenomenon, the interpretation of this information by public consciousness and the relation of public consciousness to a given phenomenon or object. [17]

H. M. Udovichenko determines the basic notion of cognitive linguistics, namely «the concept», as reasonably as she focuses on the concept multi-level structure, considers the suggestions concerning the methods of its research and displays the ways of this analysis and classification of the concept. Thus, she defines the concept as conception, scheme, notion, frame, scenario, and gestalt. N. V. Tatsenko analyses the concept as a key notion of cognitive linguistics, stating that the concept is both an individual and general idea of reality at the same time, which makes it similar to an artistic image, although they are different and must not be confused because the image is a direct «imprint» of reality, which we receive as a result of sensory perception, and the concept is a generalized, abstract imprint, mediated by human mental activity. [3]

According to V. Karasyk and G. Slyshkin, the linguistic and cultural concept is a conditional mental unit aimed at a comprehensive study of language, consciousness and culture. V. Maslova correlates cultural concepts with the names of abstract concepts in which cultural information is attached to the conceptual core. S. Vorkachev believes that the linguistic-cultural concept is a semantic formation of a high degree of abstraction, i.e. it is a product of abstraction of semantic features that belong to a certain number of significant linguistic units. Thus, linguistic and cultural concepts are the basic units of the linguistic picture of the world, in which the values ​​of both the individual linguistic personality, the linguistic and cultural community as a whole are fixed. The concept, as we know, consists of components, i.e. conceptual features, and, according to Stepanov, has a tiered structure. Each concept as a complex mental complex and content expresses the evaluative attitude of man, the object of reflection. When interpreting it, we consider universal component and national, cultural and social, distinguishing between groups and individual components. [11]

It is known that the ordered combination of concepts in the human mind is its conceptual system. It is not static. On the contrary, it is dynamic, constantly changing under the influence of the constant knowledge process. [3]

A significant number of political, social, philosophic, ideological, mental, cultural, and mythological concepts have already been studied: truth, fate, soul, spirit, freedom, justice, woman, and man heart, path (studies by N. D. Arutyunova, S. G. Vorkachov, S. S. Melnyk, T. V. Radzievska, E. A. Solovyova, A. Wierzbicka and others). Each concept is associated with other concepts, and along, they form domains, that is, the backgrounds from which the concept is singled out. [3]

Ever since a person became acquainted with work and began to become what he is, his brain has significantly changed. Based on each unique experience, a person generalized the world around them, created their own rules and deduced life laws. Therefore, gradually formed and developed the human mind, filled with knowledge.

From ancient times in all linguistic cultures, there is an established tradition to consider the mind as the highest and most valuable component and quality of human cognition. In the modern scientific and philosophical continuum, the mind is the highest level of rational thinking, characterized by creative operation of abstractions and reflection, focusing on awareness of their forms and preconditions, self-knowledge [16].

The mind is one of the most exciting things in the world. It is impossible to see it, it is impossible to touch it, but we are born with it and can develop the mind in life. In general, the mind is a person's ability to do things such as thinking, cognition, perception and memorization, but this concept is quite vague because the manifestations of the mind can be different and expressed in different things. Therefore, no one will give an exact definition of this concept. The mind is responsible for human perception of the environment, making the fastest decisions, storing and using information about various objects, functions, purpose, solving various life situations. The depth and volume of the mind are determined by the complexity of the problem, the answer to which can be found by the individual. Some parameters form the distinctive features of the human mind:

  • the amount of working memory, the ability to predict, selfless help, activities with tools, logic;

  • Hierarchy of systematic selection of valuable information;

  • Consciousness;

  • Memory. [12]

The concept of ― corpus is defined as a large and structured set of texts, usually in electronic form, used for statistical analysis and testing of hypotheses and cases of frequency, or substantiation of language rules in certain areas. Baranov AM defines a data corpus as a sample of data from a problem area formed according to specific rules. The basic units of the corpus note W. Francis are individual words, short phrases, sentences and phrases. Zakharov V. P. emphasizes the main features of the modern body of texts, namely: purpose, the format of machine reading, representativeness as a result of a particular selection procedure, the availability of metalinguistic information. Corpora are characterized from the standpoint of representativeness, i.e. the ability of the corpus to reflect all the properties of the problem area, which relate to a particular type of research; completeness, namely - consideration of relevant phenomena, even if it does not correspond to the idea of ​​proportional narrowing; economy, i.e. the ability to save the efforts of the researcher in the study of the problem area; structuring of the material, namely - the definition of storage units of the body should not be difficult; computer support is implemented in support of the case with a set of data processing programs. An essential feature of the body of texts is its morphological and syntactic markup, which are part of the annotation. The latter is the order of adding information to the text and the physical display of this information.

Corpus linguistics is a source of material for the study of language. It determines the method of text analysis, which is based on the corpora. The representativeness of the corpus determines the types of text research. For the most part, the methodological scope of the study based on buildings includes the following types of analysis:

  1. case compilation research;

  2. computer analysis of texts;

  3. quantitative analysis of texts

The primary objectives of this type of research are to describe the linguistic structure and its variants or to describe a specific group of texts. Methods of corpus analysis, thus, analyze word usage in texts of different genre classifications; use a fairly representative text selection; use computer analysis programs; based on statistical and qualitative analyzes; are targeted, namely aimed at specific results; investigate not only linguistic phenomena but also the frequency of the corresponding units of analysis in the texts of the corpus and genre balance.

1.2 Methodological background

In recent decades, in cognitive linguistics, a powerful conceptual direction has been formed. The object of study is the concept of the central operating unit of human mental resources, which provides its mental and speech activity. [13]

The most common methods of studying the linguistic and cultural concept are the analysis of vocabulary definitions to study the semantic features of concepts verbalized by language units; etymological analysis of the keyword-name of the concept; construction of the lexical, phraseological field of the keyword. The use of the analysis of synonymous units of a keyword helps identify several units that may be close in meaning to the studied token. Researchers often use the method of contextual analysis in their scientific research. Along with individual features of objects or phenomena, the features of the contexts they belong to are taken into account. One of the methods of conceptual analysis is mainly used - the analysis of the compatibility of token-verbalizers of the concept. The analysis of cognitive metaphors as semantic components of the concept structure is also popular. During the study of the linguistic and cultural concept, the analysis of the representation of the word-name of the concept in premiums, aphorisms, individual-author connotations contributes to expanding the list of linguistic means of expression of the concept. [6]

The following methods were used to solve the set goals and objectives: a descriptive, conceptual, and contextual analysis.

The oldest and most common linguistic method is descriptive. It is a systematic inventory of language units and an explanation of the peculiarities of their structure and functioning at a particular stage of language development. The descriptive method contains the following sequential steps:

  • Selection of units of analysis - phonemes, morphemes, tokens, constructions.

  • Division of selected units: division of a sentence into word combinations, word combinations into word forms, word forms into morphemes, morphemes into phonemes, phonemes into differential features

  • Classification and interpretation of selected units

The descriptive method uses the techniques of external and internal interpretation. Methods of external interpretation are of two types:

  1. in connection with extra verbal phenomena (sociological, logical-psychological, articulatory-acoustic);

  2. in connection with other language units.

Sociological techniques are used in the normative-stylistic and historical study of language, vocabulary. Techniques of internal interpretation are different ways of studying linguistic phenomena based on their systemic paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections. The descriptive method is widely used. It is used not only to describe language elements (phonemes, morphemes, words, constructions, suprasegmentally units, grammatical categories) and to study the functioning of language. The description of linguistic facts is their qualitative analysis, systematization, which creates a linguistic theory. [5, с. 16]

The descriptive method was formed in ancient times when a scientific description of language became urgent when there was a need to divide and group the still unsystematic language material into parts of speech and the allocation of language units at different levels. This method is often called pre-scientific, starting with the scientific study of languages ​​from the comparative-historical, but this statement is not entirely correct. After all, one cannot ignore such scientific achievements of the descriptive method as ordering, systematization, analysis of objects of description, even the beginnings of a comparative description of individual languages. At the same time, the descriptive method ignored the most critical features of the essence of language and its functioning, limiting itself mainly to the statement of specific linguistic facts. The primary method of such research is observation with an intuitive selection of language units and their gradual integration into specific aggregates. The achievements of the descriptive method are significant: descriptive grammars of languages, various dictionaries (explanatory, orthographic, synonymous, phraseological) have been created on their basis, and it is a bridge between linguistics and the urgent needs of society.

Even in undivided domination of the comparative-historical method, the descriptive method was not wholly supplanted, and later in the twentieth century. It became the basis of the school of descriptive grammar (descriptive - descriptive), which describes synchronous speech activity. In the application of the descriptive method, the following main stages are distinguished:

  1. Selection of units of analysis (phonemes, morphemes, tokens).

  2. Articulation of selected units (a division of sentences into phrases, words - into morphemes, morphemes - into phonemes).

  3. Classification and interpretation of selected nominative-communicative (first stage) and structural (second stage) units. Structural interpretation is carried out through categorical and discrete analysis. [10, с. 50]

Contextual analysis is an effective way to reveal the functioning of the concept within the discourse, and the cognitive studies themselves are considered discursive.

V.M. Yartseva qualifies the context as a fragment of the text, which contains the selected unit for analysis, necessary and sufficient to determine the meaning of this unit and which does not contradict the general meaning of the whole text. In other words, a context is a piece of text minus the unit that is defined. The functioning of the language unit is carried out within the linguistic context, which reveals the semantics of the word and non-linguistic, which includes national and cultural specifics, background knowledge about the situation and conditions of the communicative act. In this case, we are talking about socio-cultural and pragmatic contexts. The first reflects part of the picture of the world of a particular ethnic group. The second covers information about the communicative-pragmatic situation: the participants of communication, the situation and place of the communicative act, the subject and purpose of communication. [15, с. 73]

The separation of the characteristic features of linguistic and cultural concepts involves the involvement of various contexts: scientific, philosophical, artistic, journalistic in order to most comprehensively verbally portray the studied conceptual entities.

The concept can be explored in detail using the method of conceptual analysis, which has gained considerable popularity in modern intelligence and is a reliable tool for identifying the origin of some essential terms of modern culture. Conceptual analysis is a study for which the concept is the object of analysis. In conceptual analysis, the use of specific methods techniques, techniques, and research methods depends not only on the complexity of the concept but also on the researcher's goals and objectives and the nature of linguistic sources that make up the research material.

To give a brief overview of the modern understanding of the method of conceptual research, we consider it appropriate to dwell on its definitions. In the terminological encyclopedia of O. O Selivanova, we find the following definition: "Conceptual analysis is the main method of logical analysis of language and cognitive linguistics, which involves modelling and description of concepts." Pimenova M.V. notes that the method of studying concepts is to "interpret the meaning of structures that objectify certain features of concepts, in identifying frequency (inherent in many concepts) taxonomic characteristics and using these characteristics to determine the general typological features of the concepts under study." After that, the famous cognitologist offers to summarize the features of concepts and identify cognitive structures, models and schemes.

Thus, we can say that conceptual analysis has two aspects: logical and eidetic. The logical aspect is aimed at establishing the laws of the internal organization of the concept, identifying its elements and establishing links between them. Eidetic, first of all, seek to establish how a holistic concept exists in thinking. The ultimate goal of conceptual analysis is to build a conceptual model of the information fragment that is fixed by the sign. To do this, the elements of meaning must be specially grouped, ordered and interconnected. For this purpose, conceptual structures are used: proposals, frames, grids, prototype models.

The object of conceptual analysis is the derivatives of the core of the concept, paradigmatic connections, syntagmatic connections, historical evolution of the concept, keywords, frequency of language units, discourse in which the concept is studied. Conceptual features are primarily manifested in the semantics of the word. In the study of concepts, most scholars go from the meaning of the language sign to the content of the concept. Yes, synonyms reflect the most relevant features of a concept, and antonyms indicate the connections between concepts. Syntagmatic connections can be used to identify ways of categorizing a concept, i.e. the valence of a word shows how the speakers represent the concept. Statistical methods make it possible to determine the frequency of language units representing a concept, which allows us to talk about the importance of this concept in the picture of the world. In addition, the number of tokens representing the concept is in a particular lexical and semantic field, indicates the direction of the nomination process and the importance of a particular area of knowledge for consciousness. Yes, there is a so-called law of nominative fragmentation or differentiation: the wider the denotative sphere, the more important the concept for speakers. Another essential characteristic of conceptual analysis is the combination of multilevel analysis. In the linguistic representation of the conceptual content, were used language tools of all language levels. Therefore, analyzing the linguistic means of verbalization of the concept, we turn to lexical, phraseological means, sentence structures and even a whole set of texts because they reveal the essence of the concept. [14, с. 3-5]

Corpus linguistics is a direction that is developing very dynamically, behind which stands the future. The importance of corpus research for modern linguistics today is not in doubt. In the works of modern domestic and foreign linguists, the analysis of both individual language units and entire discourses, which is confirmed by corpus data, has recently become more common. [9, с.36]

Corpus analysis was necessary for the methodology of this study. The corpus approach in the context of this study was implemented based on the case manager AntConc developed by Dr. Laurence Anthony, which is designed for finishing first-order cases. With this program the search and count different text elements, analyze the frequency and context of the use of word forms, phrases, and morphemes, compare used word forms in different texts can be done.

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