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Look at this advice for businesspeople about moving from the UK to another country. Choose the correct alternatives.
Visitors must/don’t have to register with the police within one week of arriving. Anyone who does not can be fined $1,000.
It is difficult to find somewhere to live. You will probably must/have to live
in a hotel for the first few weeks.
UK citizens mustn’t/don’t have to register at the British Consulate but doing
so will help the consul to assist you if you get into trouble.
You shouldn’t/ must carry your passport with you at all times. The police
carry out frequent spot checks.
Visitors and residents don’t have to/mustn’t go near military installations,
especially when carrying a camera.
You must/don’t have to be very careful when driving. The roads are
Street crime is rare, but you should/shouldn’t be aware of what is going on
You should/shouldn’t learn some common expressions in the local language.
Very few people outside the capital speak English.
Read the text about the Centre for International Briefing and complete the
paragraphs using the sentences below:
1. “In a country like Japan, the notion of personal space which we value so
much simply has no meaning,” he says.
In Asian cultures most of it takes place behind the scenes.
The difference between understanding a culture and ignoring its conventions
can be the measure of success or failure abroad.
The Centre for International Briefing has spent more than 40 years preparing
the wary traveller for such pitfalls.
John Doherty, International Marketing Director with the Irish Industrial Development Authority, explains how you can easily talk yourself into trouble at a business meeting in Japan.
Greetings, gestures and terms of address are all potential hazards abroad.
LEARNING TO COPE WITH CORPORATE CULTURE CLASHES
The dos and dont’s of travelling abroad are a potential minefield for the unprepared traveller. If you spit in some countries, you could end up in prison. In others, spitting is a competitive sport.
The Centre for International Briefing has spent 40 years preparing the wary traveller for such pitfalls. Though it may sound like a covert operation for aspiring secret agents, what the Centre does is prepare travellers for encounters with new social and business customs worldwide. To date, over 50,000 people have passed through its headquarters at Farnham Castle in Surrey. ‘There are two broad tracks to our training programme,’ explains Jeff Toms, Marketing Director. ‘One covers business needs, the other social etiquette.’ For example, business travellers need to know how decision-making works.
................................... . In China, it may be necessary to have government involved in any decision taken. And in India, people are sometimes late for a scheduled appointment.
................................... . While we are familiar with the short firm handshake in this part of the world, in the Middle East the hand is held in a loose grip for a longer time. In Islamic countries, showing the soles of your feet is a sign of disrespect and crossing your legs is seen as offensive.
................................... . Jeff Toms tells the story of a British employee asked to post a letter by her Indonesian employer. ‘She knew the letter was too late for the 6 o’clock post, so she decided to hold it until the 8 o’clock one. Her boss saw the letter on her desk and sacked her for not posting it immediately. In Western cultures, we believe in empowering people and rewarding them for using initiative, but other cultures operate on the basis of obeying direct orders.’
.................................... . ‘For them, the most senior person at the meeting will say very little, and the person doing most of the talking is not very important.’ Doherty has spent 12 of his 16 years with the IDA working abroad in the USA, Germany, South-East Asia and Japan.
.................................... . With a population of 125 million condensed into a narrow strip of land, private space for the Japanese is virtually non-existent. You can’t worry about your personal space in a packed train when people are standing on your feet.
Tiptoeing through the minefield
- Show an interest in, and at least an elementary knowledge of the country you
- Learn a few words of the language - it will be seen as a compliment;
- Be sensitive to countries who have bigger and better known neighbours, and
not to confuse Canadians with Americans, New Zealanders with Australians,
Belgians with French;
- Familiarise yourself with the basics of business and social etiquette. As a starting
point, learning how to greet people is very important.
- Assume you won’t meet any communication problems because you speak English.
You may think you are paying somebody a compliment by telling them their
business is going a bomb*, Americans will infer you think it is falling.
- Appear too reserved. As Americans are generally more exuberant than their
European colleagues, they may think that your reserve means lack of enthusiasm.
Match the words from the text with their corresponding definitions.
1. abroad a. something done in a society because of tradition
2. a minefield b. able to understand others’ feelings
3. a pitfall c. in or to a foreign country
4. a custom d. something that expresses admiration
5. etiquette e. to show or represent
6. scheduled f. rude or insulting
7. to be a sign of g. a situation with hidden dangers
8. offensive h. formal rules for polite behaviour in society
9. a compliment i. a likely position
10. sensitive j. arranged for a certain time
Find the examples of the adjectives of nationality in the text.
Translate the second part of the text ‘Tiptoeing through the minefield’
V. Answer the questions:
Why is travelling abroad hazardous for the unprepared traveller?
What are the tasks of the Centre for International Briefing?
What are the two important aspects of the Centre’s training programme?
What features of Asian culture does Marketing Director of the Centre
What are the main dos and don’ts of travelling abroad?
V. Render the text.
Negotiating across cultures
I. You are going to read four articles about different negotiating styles. Before you read, match the words from your article with their definitions. Then read and match each article with one of the four nationalities: German, Russian, Spanish and American.
1. tactics a. be flexible
2. make compromises b. not changing your opinion or attitude
3. consistency c. the methods you use to get what you want
Negotiations are demanding and may become emotional. You may find your negotiator banging his or her fist on the table or leaving the room. Accept such tactics with patience and calmness. They are designed to make it difficult for you to concentrate.
These negotiating teams are often made up of experienced managers whose style can be like a game of chess, with moves planned in advance. Wanting to make compromises may be seen as a sign of weakness. Distinguish between your behaviour inside and outside the negotiations. Impatience, toughness, and emotion during the negotiations should be met with calmness, patience and consistency. Outside the negotiating process you can show affection and personal sympathy.
From the Financial Times.
1. speak your mind a. when you find out what the other side wants
2. place great weight on b. say what you think
3. exploratory phase c. consider very important
As well as being formal, negotiations are direct. These managers speak their mind. They place great weight on the clarity of the subject matter and get to the point quickly.
Excessive enthusiasm or compliments are rare in business here. You should give a thorough and detailed presentation, with an emphasis on objective information, such as your company’s history, rather than on clever visuals or marketing tricks.
Prepare thoroughly before the negotiation and be sure to make your position clear during the opening stage of the talks, as well as during their exploratory phases. Avoid interrupting, unless you have an urgent question about the presentation.
From the Financial Times.
1 small talk a. style of behaviour
2 protocol b. light or social conversation
3 manner c. the way things are done on official occasions
Communicating is a natural talent of this nation. When negotiating, the emphasis is on small talk and smiling. There’s liberal use of a sense of humor that is more direct than it is in the UK. Informality is the rule. Business partners do not use their academic titles on their business cards. Sandwiches and drinks in plastic or boxes are served during conferences.
This pleasant attitude continues in the negotiations itself. You as negotiators usually attach little importance to status, title, formalities, and protocol. They communicate in an informal and direct manner on a first-name basis. Their manner is relaxed and casual.
The attitude “Time is money” has more influence in business communication here than it does anywhere else. Developing a personal relationship with the business partner is not as important as getting results.
From the Financial Times.
1. counterparts a. unplanned thoughts
2. spontaneous ideas b. give your opinion
3. put your point across c. the people on the other negotiating team
At the start of the negotiations you might want to decide whether you need interpreters. You should have documentation available in the language of this country. Business cards should carry details in English and in the language of this country.
During the negotiations your counterparts may interrupt each other or even you. It’s quite common for this to happen in the middle of a sentence. For several people to talk at the same time is accepted in this culture but is considered rather unusual in Northern Europe.
The discussion is likely to be lively. In negotiations, business people from this culture rely on quick thinking and spontaneous ideas rather than careful preparation. It may appear that everybody is trying to put his or her point across at once. That can make negotiations intense and lengthy, but also enjoyably creative.
From the Financial Times.
II. Work in pairs to answer these questions.
In which country (Russia, Germany, US or Spain):
should you start a negotiation with general conversation?
do negotiators show strong emotions?
is it common for there to be several conversations at the same time during a
do negotiators focus on results rather then developing relationships?
do negotiators plan their tactics carefully?
should you not stop someone while they are talking?
is it usual for the atmosphere to be relaxed and friendly?
do negotiators prefer to think of ideas during a negotiation rather than
before it starts?
do negotiators like to talk about business immediately?
should you not give the other side too much as they will not respect you?
III. Discuss these questions.
If you are from one of the countries in the articles, do you agree with
what the article says?
If you are from another country, which of the countries is the nearest to
your own country in terms of negotiating behaviour? Why?
IV.Translate into English:
1. Чтобы успешно вести международный бизнес, научитесь уважать
свою собственную культуру, а также терпимо и с уважением
относитесь к культуре других стран.
Не следует путать бельгийцев с французами, канадцев с американцами, новозеландцев с австралийцами.
3. Этикет - это система принятых в обществе правил вежливого
4. Одинаковые жесты могут иметь разное значение в различных
5. Короткое, крепкое рукопожатие является обычным для Европы и
Большинство американцев измеряют степень успеха карьерным ростом и личными достижениями.
Япония - маленькая страна с большим населением, и личного пространства здесь практически не существует.
Японцы считают, что гармоничные личные отношения персонала компании делают организацию сильнее, а работу эффективнее.
9. Прежде чем отправляться в деловую поездку в Китай, вы должны
знать, как происходит процесс принятия решений в этой стране.
10. На деловых встречах американцы обычно обращаются друг к другу
(Market Leader Intermediate Unit 7 Recording 7.5, 7.6, 7,7)
Listen to the conversation between two people who have recently met.
What is wrong? How can it be improved?
In what business situations would you use the words and expressions
Congratulations! I don’t mind. I’m afraid ...
Cheers! Excuse me. Please ...
Make yourself at home. Sorry. Could you ...
Help yourself. It’s on me. That sounds good.
What would you say in the following situations?
You don’t hear someone’s name when you are introduced to him/her.
You have to refuse an invitation to dinner with a supplier.
You are offered food you hate.
You want to end a conversation in a diplomatic way.
You have to greet a visitor.
You have to introduce two people to each other.
You offer to pay for a meal.
You have to propose a toast.
Your colleague has been made redundant.
You arrive half an hour late for the meeting.
Listen and check your answers to task III.
What can you say in the first five minutes of meeting someone? Choose the best answer in the right-hand column for the questions in the left-hand column.
Is this your first visit to the Far East? a. At the Peninsula Hotel.
Oh really. What do you do? b. Nearly ten years.
How long have you been there? c. No, I come here quite often.
Have you been to Hong Kong before? d. No. This is my first trip.
Business or pleasure? e. I’m the Marketing Director for a
small import-export company.
How long have you been here? f. Business, I’m afraid.
How long are you staying? g. Till tomorrow night.
Where are you staying? h. A week.
What’s the food like? i. I really like it. There’s so much
So, what do you think of Hong Kong? j. It’s very good, but eating in the
Peninsula can be quite expensive.
Listen and check your answers to task V.
In your opinion, which of these items of advice for a successful
conversation are useful and which are not?
Listen carefully 5. Ask questions
Give only yes or no answers 6. Stay silent
Interrupt a lot 7. Keep eye contact
Be polite 8. Be friendly
Socializing and entertaining
(Market Leader Pre-Intermediate Unit 9 Recording 9.5, 9.6, 9.7)
Socializing is an important part of good management. When socializing for business in your country, how important are the following?
being on time
the way people dress
how you address people (first names or family names?)