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Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation

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Міністерство Освіти і Науки України

Таврійський Екологічний Інститут

Факультет іноземної філології

Кафедра______________________

Спеціальність 7.030502-«Мова та література»

Курсова робота

Тема: Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation

Виконавець: студентка 5 курсу

Старцева Марина Олександрівна

Науковий керівник:

доцент Колір Л.Я.

Сімферополь, 2003

Contents

Introduction

Section I. General characteristics of the gerund

1.1 The double nature of the gerund

1.2 The tense distinctions of the gerund

1.3 The voice distinctions of the gerund

1.4 Predicative constructions with the gerund

Section II The use of the gerund

2.1 The use of the gerund

2.2 The function of the gerund in the sentence

Section III. The gerund and the other verbals

3.1 The gerund and the infinitive

3.2 The gerund and the participle

3.3 The gerund and the verbal noun

Section IV. Comparison of the English gerund and its equivalents in Russian

The conclusion

List of literature

INTRODUCTION

The aim of my paper is the analysis of the translation and the opportunity to transmit the meaning of the gerund in Russian. I have set this aim because of a superficial translation the reader cannot see what is written between the lines. The translator doesn't always know grammar and grammar are left behind the limits of the translation.

When one compares an original text with the translation, one can see that some difficult places are omitted or changed. For example, if the noun expresses the subject, the translator can translate this noun with an adverb, because of it sounds better than if it were translated without an adverb (6, 31).

The theme of the course paper is analysis of Russian equivalents of the gerund. The main problem of this paper is to show how one can translate gerund in all situations, how to render a gerund by other means of the language, how gerundial constructions are used. In a complex clause one can omit the translation of a gerund because of it's difficult to express the idea in the Russian language.

There aren't any gerunds in the Russian language. There is only a verbal noun. The English gerund cannot be translated as a verbal noun. I'll try to show this difficulty of translation in Russian.

I've chosen this theme, because rendering gerund in Russian is ambiguous and difficult for a student. I want to do my own contribution in the analysis of this problem.

My course paper consists of the introduction, the two chapters and the conclusion.

Section I. General characteristics of the gerund

Origin and Development. The gerund was originally a verbal noun in-ing (until about 1250 also with the form-ung). Thus it differed from the present participle in meaning, which was originally an adjective and until about the fourteenth century had a different ending, namely, ende (or inde, ynde, ande), so that the two suffixes were farther apart in form and meaning than they are today. They have both in course of time acquired more verbal force, but the gerund is still a noun and the present participle is still an adjective. [22-101]

. In the combination possessive + gerund, as in I do not like his coming here so often-мені НЕ подобається, що він часто приходить сюди. The oblique case may be substituted for the possessive, so that the gerund becomes a present participle: I do not like him coming here so often. The difference - if any - appears to be that in the former construction the logical emphasis is on the possessive, in the latter on the verb. But there seems also to be a tendency to give up the latter construction altogether, as if it were a mere variation of I do not like him possessives: "in honors of its being Christmas day I ..." - у честь Різдва я ... "when metal came into use, men were able to make their knives much longer, without their being afraid of their breaking" - з появою металу з'явилася можливість виготовляти більше довгі ножі, не боячись, що вони поламаються. In the last sentence they could be omitted but not changed into them.

So also the genitive in who told you of your wife's being there? May be made ​​into the common case-of your wife being there. In such constructions as I cannot accept the notion of school-life affecting the poet-я НЕ можу прийняти поняття про шкільної життя, яка впливає на поета, to this extent the common case is preferred to the genitive (24-92).

"Ing" is used here as a comprehensive technical term for those English forms which from a syntactical point of view must be considered as two different things, a gerund and a participle ("first participle", generally called "present participle"). [23-129]

In order to understand the definition "gerund" we should know all its meanings and word-combinations.

The gerund developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized, preserving at the same time its nominal character.

The gerund is formed by adding the inflection-ing to the stem of the verb and coincides in form with Participle I (15 - 170).

    1. The double nature of the gerund

As a natural result of its origin and development the gerund has nominal and verbal properties. The nominal characteristics of the gerund are as follows:

  1. The gerund can perform the function of the subject, an object and a predicative.

They say smoking leads to meditation. - До медитації вони порадили використовувати димлячий свинець .*

I like making people happy. - Я люблю ощасливлювати людей.

He went away without saying a word. - Він пішов НЕ сказавши ні слова (1 - 222).

  1. The gerund can be preceded by a proposition.

I'm very, very tired of rowing - Я дуже, дуже втомилася гребти.

He's fond of skating. - Він захоплюється ковзанами.

You can't make an omelette without breaking eggs. - Ти НЕ можеш зробити омлет без яєць.

I'm tired f hearing about that. - Я втомилася це слухати (5 - 137).

  1. Like a noun the gerund can be modified by a noun in the Possessive Case or by a possessive pronoun.

    "I wonder at Jolyon's allowing this cugagement", he said to aunt Ann. - «Мене дивує, що Джолі o н допустив цю заручини », сказав він тітоньці Енн.

    Is there any objection to my seeing her? - Хто-небудь заперечує проти того, щоб я побачився з нею? (7 - 259).

    The verbal characteristics of the gerund are the same as those of the participle:

    1. The gerund of transitive verbs can take a direct object.

    I had now made ​​a good progress in understanding and speaking their language. - Зараз я зробив хороше просування в розумінні і говорінні їх мови.

    1. The gerund can be modified by an adverb.

    She burst out crying bitterly. - Вона гірко розплакалася.

    1. The gerund has tense distinctions; the gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. The forms of the gerund in modern English are as follows (2 - 624).


    Active

    Passive

    Indefinite

    writing

    being written

    Perfect

    having written

    having been written

    There is no gerund in the Russian language and the English gerund is rendered in Russian in different ways:

    1. by a noun.

    Dancing had not begun yet. - Танці ще НЕ почалися (10 - 232).

    1. by an infinitive.

    He had tea with Cipriano before leaving. - Перед тим, як піти, вона випила чай з K іпріано.

    It is no good hiding our heads under our wings. - Марно ховати голову під крило. * (Here and there the translation is mine)

    1. by дієслово.

    And without waiting for her answer he turned and left us. - І НЕ чекаючи її, він повернувся і вийшов.

    On seeing Bella he stopped, beckoned her to him, and drew her arm through his. - Побачивши Беллу, він зупинився, підкликав її до собі і взяв під руку (16 - 19).

    1. by a subordinate clause.

    He regretted now having come. - Тепер він шкодував, що прийшов.

    It should be observed that though the active forms of the gerund may be rendered in different ways, the passive forms are nearly always rendered by a clause.

    As she contemplated the wide windows and imposing signs, she became conscious of being gazed upon. - Коли вона розглядала широкі вітрини і значні вивіски, вона відчула, що на неї дивляться.

    After having been informed of the conference in my lady's room, ... he immediately decided on waiting to hear the news from Frizinghall. - Після того як йому повідомили про нараді в кімнаті міледі, ... він відразу вирішив почекати, щоб дізнатися новини з Фрізінгхолла (15, 171).

      1. The tense distinctions of the gerund

    The tense destinations of the gerund, like those of the participle, are not absolute but relative.

    The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb it may refer to the present, past, or future.

    He can swim for any number of hours without tiring. - Він може плисти багато годин підряд, не втомлюючись.

    She walked on without turning her head. - Вона йшла, не повертаючи голови.

    Gwendolen will not rest without having the world at her feet. - Гвендолен НЕ заспокоїться, поки весь світ НЕ буде у її ніг.

    No one could pass in or out without being seen. - Ніхто НЕ міг ні увійти так, щоб його НЕ бачили (12 - 105).

    However, a prior action is not always expressed by a perfect Gerund; in some cases we find an Indefinite Gerund. This occurs after the verbs to remember, to excuse, to forgive, to thank and after the prepositions on (upon), after and without.

    I don 't remember hearing the legend before. - Я не пам'ятаю, що б я раніше чула про легенду.

    Thank you for restraining me just now. - Дякую тебе, що дотримав мене зараз.

    On leaving the house we directed our steps to the nearest shade. - Покинувши будинок, ми оглядалися до найближчій тіні.

    After walking about ten yards, he found the hat among the leaves. - Пройшовши близько десяти ярдів, він виявив капелюх серед листя.

    She passes through and disappears in the village without noticing the young lady. - Вона проходить повз і зникає в селі НЕ помічаючи юну леді (14 - 210).

    The Perfect Gerund may also be used after the above mentioned verbs and prepositions.

    He did not remember having been in that room. - Він НЕ пам'ятав, щоб коли - ні будь був в цієї кімнаті.

    After having denied herself to everybody, Miss Rachel, to our astonishment, walked into the midst of us of her own accord. - Після того як міс Речел відмовилася бачити кого б то ні було, вона до нашому подив, вийшла до нам по своєму власним бажанням.

    They parted at Cohen's door without having spoken to each other again. - Вони розлучилися у двері будинку Коена, не сказавши один другу ні слова (15, 173).

      1. The voice distinctions of the gerund

    The gerund of transitive verbs has special forms for the active and the passive voice.

    He liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to. - Він НЕ любив ні читати вголос, ні слухати читання.

    It's to observed that after the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require and the adjective worth the gerund is used in the active form, though it is passive in meaning.

    "The slums want attending to, no doubt", he said. - «Без сумніву нетрями треба зайнятися », - сказав він.

    He realized that his room needed painting. - Він зрозумів, що його кімнату треба пофарбувати.

    The child deserves praising. - Дитина заслуговує того, щоб його похвалили.

    They were not worth saving. - Їх НЕ коштувало рятувати (4 - 66).

      1. Predicative constructions with the gerund

    Like all the verbals the gerund can form predicative constructions, ie constructions in which the verbal element expressed by the gerund is in predicate relation to the nominal element expressed by a noun or pronoun.

    Like a verb, a gerund may have a subject, but, like earlier verbal nouns, its subject is in the genitive, here, however, only the old subjective genitive in-s, or instead of the genitive the person implied in a possessive adjective , my, his, etc., which were originally genitives of the personal pronouns and are still often used as such; 'I am provoked at John's talking so rudely' (or 'at his talking so rudely') .- Я проти того, щоб Джон так з мною грубо розмовляв. Many common substantive limiting adjectives, as this, these, those, any, several, all, two, three, etc., Have no s-genitive. Here, of course, as the genitive is impossible, we have to use the accusative: 'Was it thou who didst tell the boy this foolishness of these being our arms? - Був Чи це саме ти, хто сказав хлопчику цю дурість, що він в наших руках '. 'Some families may possibly have moved away on account of the repeated failure of crops, but I do not know of any having done so .- Деякі сім'ї можливо поїхали б з - за постійних неврожаїв, але я нікого НЕ знаю, хто б так надійшов. 'There are also nouns that have no genitive form. Here we must have recourse to the accusative: 'I am not surprised at young or old falling in love with her.' There is no hope of good coming from it. ' 'There is no expectation of the French withdrawing their demands.' - Більше немає сил чекати, коли Франція надасть свої вимоги (22-102).

    I don't like your going off without any money. - Мені НЕ подобається, що ви йдіть без грошей.

    Here the gerund going off is in predicate relation to the pronoun your, which denotes the doer of the action expressed by the gerund (14, 173).

    The nominal element of the construction can be expressed in different ways.

    1. If it denotes a living being it may be expressed:

    1. by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun.

    His further consideration of the point was prevented by Richard's coming back to us in an excited state. - Його подальші роздуми були перервані тим, що повернувся Річард в надзвичайно збудженому стані.

    Do you mind my smoking? - Ви нічого не маєте проти того, щоб я курив?

    1. by a noun in the common case.

    I have a distinct recollection of Lady Chiltern always getting the good conduct prize! - Я відмінно пам'ятаю, що леді Гільтерн завжди отримувала нагороди за зразкову поведінку.

    NOTE. - Thus in modern English there are two parallel constructions or the type: Fancy David's courting Emily! and Fancy David courting Emily! These two constrictions may be used in differently, but sometimes there is a slight difference in meaning in the first example the action (the verbal element of the construction) is emphasized, whereas in the second the does of the action (the nominal element of the construction) is emphasized (9, 89).

    Occasionally examples are found where the nominal element of the construction is expressed by a pronoun is the objective case.

    I hope you will forgive me disturbing you. - Сподіваюся, що ви вибачте мене за те, що я вас потурбував.

    There are cases when the nominal element of the construction, though denoting a living, cannot be expressed by a noun in the possessive case, but only by a noun in the common case, namely when it consists of two or more nouns or when it is a noun modified by an attribute in past-position.

    I object to Marry and Jane going out on such a windy day. - Я проти, щоб Мері і Джейн вийшли на вулицю в такий холод.

    He felt no uneasiness now in the thought of the brother and sister being alone together. - Його тепер НЕ бентежила думка про тому, що брат і сестра залишилися удвох.

    Did you ever hear of a man of sense rejecting such an offer? - Чи чули ви коли-небудь, щоб розумна людина відмовився від такої пропозиції? (15, 174).

    1. If the nominal element of the construction denotes a lifeless thing, it is expressed by a noun in the common case (such nouns, as a rule, are not used in the genitive case) or by a possessive pronoun.

    I said something about my clock being slow. - Я сказав, що мої годинник відстають.

    ... Piggott spoke of ... my room, and of its being ready for me. - ... Пеготт говорила ... про моїй кімнаті і про те, що вона вже приготовлена ​​для мене (3 - 475).

    1. The nominal element of the construction can also be expressed by a pronoun which has no case distinctions, such as all, this, that, both, each, something.

    I insist on both of them coming in time. - Я вимагаю, щоб вони обидва прийшли вчасно.

    Again Michael ... was conscious of something deep and private stirring within himself. - Михайло знову відчув, що в його душі ворухнулося що - то глибоке і затаєне.

    NOTE. - Some grammarians recognize the existence of two separate constructions: the gerundial construction (a construction whose nominal element is expressed by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun) and a construction with a half gerund (a construction whose nominal element is expressed by a noun in the common case, a pronoun in the objective case, or a pronoun which has no case distinctions) (15, 175).

    A general construction is nearly always rendered in Russian by a subordinate clause, generally introduced by те, що; тим, що; як, etc.

    He being a foreigner, an ex - enemy was bad enough. - Те, що він був іноземцем, колишній ворог, було вже погано.

    The door opening gently interrupted her thoughts at last. - Її думки були нарешті перервані тим, що двері тихенько відкрилася.

    I began to picture to myself ... my being found dead in a day or two, under some hedge. - Я почав уявляти собі, як через день або два мене знайдуть мертвим під яким-не-будь парканом (13, 56).

    Section II The use of the gerund

    2.1 The use of the gerund

    In modern English the gerund is widely used and often competes with the infinitive.

    In the following case only the gerund is used.

    1. With the verbs and verbal phrases: to avoid, to burst out, to deny, to enjoy, to excuse, to fancy (in imperative sentences as an exclamation of surprise), to finish, to forgive, to give up, to go on, to keep on, to leave off, to mind (in negative and interrogative sentences), to postpone, to put off, cannot help and some others (6, 256).

    He avoided looking at Sabina. - Він уникав дивитися на Савіну.

    ... She burst out crying. - ... Вона розплакалася.

    She denied having been at the station that evening. - Вона заперечувала, що була в той вечір на станції.

    Excuse my leaving you in the dark a moment. - Вибачте, що я на хвилиночку залишила вас у темряві.

    Fancy finding you here at such an hour! - Я навіть уявити собі не міг, що застану вас тут в такий час!

    Forgive my speaking plainly. - Пробачте, що я говорю так прямо.

    When Committee had finished deciding on its politics, he had gone home. - Коли комітет скінчив розробляти свій план дій, він пішов додому.

    They went on talking. - Вони продовжували розмовляти.

    The doctor keeps coming and having a look at me. - Доктор продовжує відвідувати мене і оглядати.

    It was quite rough, but I kept on rowing. - Озеро було неспокійно, але я продовжував гребти.

    I have left off shooting. - Я перестав полювати.

    Do you mind me asking you one or two more questions? - Ви нічого не маєте проти того, щоб я поставив вам ще один-два питання?

    1. With the following verbs and verbal phrases used with a preposition: to accuse of, to agree to, to approve of, to complain of, to depend on, to feel like, to insist on, to look like, to object to, to persist in, to prevent from, to rely on, to speak of, to succeed in, to suspect of, to thank for, to think of, to give up, the idea of, to look forward to, not to like the idea of, to miss or the opportunity of and some others.

    He was surprised at having been asked about it. - Він був здивований, коли його запитали про це.

    He is proud of having won the first place in the chess tournament. - Він пишається, що зайняв перший місце в турнірі по шахів.

    We insisted on being informed by cable of the arrival of the ship. - Ми наполягали, щоб нас поінформували по кабелю про прибуття корабля.

    He objects to having to come here every day. - Він проти, щоб примусово приходити сюди кожен день (6, 28).

    They accuse me of having dealt with the Germans. - Мене звинувачують в тому, що я мав справа з німцями.

    It was clear now ... that Abraham never had agreed to their being married today. - Тепер було ясно, що Авраам ніколи НЕ погоджувався на те, щоб вони одружилися сьогодні.

    You did not approve of my playing at roulette. - Ви НЕ схвалювали того, що я грала в рулетку.

    All the happiness of my life depends on you loving me. - Усі щастя моєї життя залежить від того, полюбите Чи ви мене.

    I don't feel like going out. - Мені НЕ хочеться виходити.

    I don't want to bore you with all this, but I feel like talking. - Я НЕ хочу набридати вам всім цим, але мені хочеться поговорити.

    I insist on being treated with a certain consideration. - Я наполягаю на тому, щоб до мені ставилися уважніше.

    It looks like raining. - Схоже, що буде дощ.

    I object to his having any acquaintance at all with me sister. - Я проти того, щоб він був знаком з моєї сестрою.

    I rushed out to prevent her from seeing this dreadful sight. - Я вибіг, щоб НЕ дати їй побачити це жахливе видовище.

    ... You may rely on my setting matters right. - ... Ви можете розраховувати на те, що я всі улагоджу.

    My medical adviser succeeded in saving my life ... - Моєму лікаря вдалося врятувати мені життя ...

    You suspect me of stealing your diamond. - Ви підозрюєте мене в тої, що я вкрав ваш діамант.

    I resolved not to think of going abroad any more. - Я вирішив більше НЕ думати про подорожах.

    I really thank you heartily for talking all this trouble. - Я сердечно вдячний вам зате, що ви взяли на себе всі ці турботи.

    So he returned his straitened means to his pocket, and gave up the idea of trying to buy the boys. - Він знову обрав своє жалюгідний стан в кишеню і відмовився від наміру постаратися підкупити хлопчиків (15, 177).

    1. With the following predicative word-groups (with or without a preposition): to be aware of, to be busy in, to be capable of, to be fond of, to be guilty of, to be indignant at, to be pleased (displeased ) at, to be proud of, to be sure of, to be surprised (astonished) at, to be worth (while) and others.

    Sir Pitt Crawly was not aware of Becky's having married Radon. - Сер Піїт Покрівлі НЕ знав, що Бекі вийшла заміж за Радону.

    I felt physically incapable of remaining still in any one place and morally incapable of speaking to any one human being. - Я відчував, що фізично НЕ в стані залишатися на одному місці і морально НЕ в стані говорити з ким б то ні було.

    I am very fond of being looked at. - Я дуже люблю, коли на мене дивляться.

    You are really guilty of having connived with a German officer to help his escape. - Ви дійсно винні в тому, що сприяли побіжу німецького офіцера.

    Mr. Osborne was indignant at his son's having disobeyed him. - Містер Осборн був в обуренні від того, що син його ослухався.

    ... She was not pleased at my coming. - ... Вона була незадоволена, що я прийшов.

    Miss Crawly was greatly displeased at Radon's having married Becky. - Міс Покрівлі була дуже незадоволена, що Радон одружився на Бекі.

    ... Nobody knows better than I do that she ... is proud of being so pretty. - ... Вже я то знаю: вона ... пишається тим, що вона така гарненька.

    Are you quite sure of those words referring to my mother? - Ви зовсім впевнені, що ці слова відносяться до моєї матері?

    The bridal party was worth seeing. - Весілля коштувало подивитися (15, 178 - 179).

    2.2 The function of the gerund in the sentence

    The gerund may be used in various syntactic functions. A single gerund occurs but seldom; in most cases we find a gerundial phrase or a gerundial construction.

    1. The gerund as a subject.

    Talking mends no holes. - Розмови не допомагають у біді.

    Waiting for the professor was a lame excuse for doing nothing. - Те, що ми чекали професора, було слабким виправданням того, що ми нічого не робили.

    My answering in the affirmative gave him great satisfaction. - Те, що я відповів ствердно, було йому дуже приємно (1, 106).

    The gerund used as a subject may follow the predicate; in these cases the sentence opens with the introductory it (which serves as an introductory subject) or with the construction there is.

    It's no use talking like that to me. - Марно говорити з мною в такому тоні.

    There was no mistaking the expression on her face. - Вислів її особи не можна було НЕ зрозуміти.

    NOTE. - There is another view according to which it is the subject and the rest of the sentence is the predicate.

    1. The as a predicative.

    The only remedy for such a headache as mine is going to bed. - Єдиний засіб від такого головного болю, як у мене, - це лягти спати.

    1. The gerund as part of a compound verbal predicate.

    • With verbs and verbal phrases denoting modality the gerund forms part of a compound verbal modal predicate.

      We intend going to Switzerland and climbing Mount Blanc. - Ми хочемо поїхати в Швейцарію і піднятися на Монблан.

      Joseph could not help admiring the man. - Джозеф не міг не захоплюватися цією людиною.

      • With verbs denoting the beginning, the duration or the end of an action, the gerund forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.

      She began sobbing and weeping. - Вона початку ридати і нити.

      The manager has finished dictating a letter to the secretary. - Менеджер закінчив диктувати лист секретарю.

      I avoid speaking to him on this matter. - Я уникаю розмовляти з ним в такий манері.

      In the night it started raining. - Вночі розпочався дощ (7 - 257).

      1. The gerund as an object.

      The gerund may be used as a direct object and as a prepositional indirect object.

      I simply love riding. - Я просто обожнюю кататися верхи.

      She enjoyed singing and playing to him. - Їй доставляло задоволення співати і грати для нього.

      The times were good for building ... - Час для будівництва будинку було дуже вдалий.

      Charlie did not succeed in talking things easily. - Чарлі НЕ вдавалося дивитися легко на речі.

      Predicative constructions with the gerund form a complex object as they consist of two distinct elements, nominal and verbal.

      Perhaps you would 't mind Richard' s coming in? - Може бути, ви не будете заперечувати проти того, щоб увійшов Річард?

      Aunt Augusta won 't quite approve of your being here. - Тітка серпня буде не дуже задоволена тим, що ви тут (15, 181 - 182).

      1. The gerund as an attribute.

      In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition.

      There are different ways of solving this problem. - Існують різні способи рішення цієї проблеми.

      We discussed different methods of teaching foreign languages. - Ми обговорювали різні методи вивчення іноземних мов.

      He has no objection to being sent there. - У нього немає можливостей, що його туди послали (7, 254).

      1. The gerund as an adverbial modifier.

      In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition. It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time, manner, attendant circumstances, cause, condition, purpose and concession; the most common functions are those of adverbial modifiers of time, manner and attendant circumstances.

      • As an adverbial modifier of time the gerund is preceded by the prepositions after, before, on, upon, in, or at.

      After leaving her umbrella in the hall, she entered the living room. - Залишивши парасолька в передній, вона увійшла в вітальню.

      He was to have three days at home before going back to farm. - Він повинен був пробути три дня будинку, перш ніж повернутися на ферму.

      Clare turned at hearing her footsteps ... - Почувши її кроки, Клер озирнувся.

      NOTE. - In the function of an adverbial modifier of time gerund sometimes competes with the participle.

      George, on hearing the story, grinned. - Джордж, почувши цю історію, посміхнувся.

      The four girls, hearing him speak in the hall, rushed out of the library. - Усі чотири дівчинки, почувши, що він говорить в передній, вибігли з бібліотеки.

      After reaching the second landing ... I heard a sound of quiet, and regular breathing on my left-hand side. - Дійшовши до друга площі сходи, ... я почув з лівої боку спокійне і рівне дихання.

      Reaching the door of the room occupied by Cowperwood and Aileen, she tapped lightly. - Дійшовши до двері кімнати, яку займали Каупер Вуд і Еллін, вона тихенько послухала.

      • As an adverbial modifier of manner the gerund is used with the preposition by or in.

      She startled her father by bursting into tears. - Вона налякала свого батька тим, що розплакалася.

      The day was spent in packing. - День пройшов за упаковкою речей.

      • As an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances the gerund is preceded by the preposition without.

      She was not brilliant, not active, but rather peaceful and statuesque without knowing it. - Це була жінка НЕ блискуча, не енергійна, але дуже спокійна і велична, сама того НЕ знаючи.

      • As an adverbial modifier of purpose, the gerund is chiefly used with the preposition for.

      ... One side of the gallery was used for dancing. - ... Одна сторона галереї використовувалася для танців.

      • As an adverbial modifier of condition the gerund is preceded by the preposition without.

      He has no right to come bothering you and papa without being invited. - Він НЕ має права приходити і турбувати вас і батька, якщо його НЕ запрошують.

      • As an adverbial modifier of clause the gerund is used with the preposition for, for fear of, owing to.

      I feel the better myself for having spent a good deal of time abroad. - Я відчуваю себе краще від того, що довго прожив за кордоном.

      I dared not attend the funeral for fear of making a fool of myself. - Я не смів, бути присутнім на похоронах, тому що боявся поставити себе в дурне становище.

      • As an adverbial modifier of concession the gerund is preceded by the preposition in spite of.

      In spite of being busy, he did all he could to help her. - Незважаючи на зайнятість, він зробив все, щоб допомогти їй.

      The above examples show that the gerund preceded by one and the some preposition may be used in different functions: with the preposition without, it may be perform the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances and of condition; with the preposition in, it may be perform the function of an adverbial modifier of time and of manner; with the preposition for, it may perform the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose or of cause.

      NOTE. - The Russian не + дієслово may correspond to the English without + Gerund or not + Participle. It usually corresponds to not + Participle if it's used in the function of an adverbial modifier of cause.

      Чи не знаючи адреси міс Бетті, Давид НЕ міг їй написати. - Not knowing Miss Betsey's address, David could not write to her (CAUSE).

      If ні + дієприслівник is used in the function of adverbial modifiers of attendant circumstances and of condition, it generally corresponds to without + Gerund.

      Давид поїхав з Лондона, нікому нічого НЕ сказавши. - David left London without telling anybody about it (ATTENDANT CIRCUMSTANCES) (15, 183 - 184).

      Section III. The gerund and other verbals

      3.1 The gerund and the infinitive

      With a number of verbs and word-groups both the gerund and the infinitive may be used. The most important of them are: to be afraid, to begin, to cease, to continue, can (cannot) afford, to dread, to fear, to forget, to hate, to intend, to like (to dislike), to neglect , to prefer, to propose, to remember, to recollect, to start, to stop.

      The young man began turning aver the pages of a book. - Молодий людина почав перевертати сторінки книги.

      At length she began to speak softly. - Нарешті вона початку говорити м'яко.

      She continued standing near the piano. - Вона продовжувала стояти у піаніно.

      She continued to look at him ... - Вона продовжувала дивитися на нього ...

      It is sometimes possible to find a reason for the use of a given form. With some verbs and word-groups, such as to be afraid, to forget, to hate, to like, to prefer the infinitive is mostly used with reference to a special occasion, the gerund being more appropriate to a general statement.

      The child was afraid of remaining alone, but he was afraid of to remain along or such a stormy night. - Дитина НЕ боявся залишитися один в таку бурхливу ніч.

      Don't forget shutting the windows when you leave home. - Не забувай закривати вікна, йдучи з вдома.

      I don 't like interrupting people. - Я не люблю відривати людей від справи.

      I don 't like to interrupt him, he seems very busy. - Мені не хочеться заважати йому, він, здається, дуже зайнятий.

      I was always afraid losing his goodwill. - Я завжди боявся втратити його розташування.

      Gwen olden answered rather pettishly, and her mamma was afraid to say more. - Гвендолен відповіла трохи роздратовано, і її мити побоялася продовжувати розмову (15, 179).

      With the verb to remember the infinitive usually refers to the future, and the gerund to the past.

      1. I shall always remember meeting you for the first time (= remember what one has done, or what has happened). - Я завжди буду пам'ятати, як ми зустрілися вперше.

      Remember to go to the post office, won't you? (= Remember what you have to do). - Не забудь зайти на пошту.

      1. To forget.

      I shall never forget seeing the Queen. - Я ніколи не забуду, як я бачив королеву.

      She is always forgetting to give me my letters. - Вона завжди забуває віддавати мені мої листи.

      1. To stop.

      I really must stop smoking (= stop what one is doing, or does). - Мені дійсно потрібно припинити курити.

      Every half hour I stop work to smoke a cigarette (= make a break or pause in order o do something). - Кожні півгодини я перериваю роботу, щоб покурити.

      1. To go on + Ving.

      How long do to intend to go on playing those records? - Як довго ти маєш намір слухати ці платівки?

      to go on + Inf.

      He welcomed the new students and then went on to explain the college regulations. - Він привітав нових студентів і приступив до оголошенню правил коледжу.

      1. To regret + Ving.

      I don't regret telling her what I thought, even if it upset her. - Я НЕ шкодую, що сказав їй тому, що думаю, навіть якщо це засмутило її.

      To regret + Inf.

      I regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you employment. - Я шкодую, але повинен повідомити вам, що ми НЕ можемо прийняти вас на роботу (5, 160).

        1. The gerund and the participle

      In most cases the differentiation between the gerund and the participle does not present any difficulty.

      Unlike the participle the gerund may be preceded by a preposition, it may be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun; it can be used in the function of a subject, object and predicative. In the function of an attribute and of an adverbial modifier both the gerund and the participle may be used, but the gerund in these functions always proceeded by a preposition.

      There are cases, however, when the differentiation between the gerund and the participle presents some difficulty; for instance, it is not always easy to distinguish between a gerund as part of a compound noun and a participle as an attribute to a noun. One should bear in mind that if we have a gerund as part of a compound noun, the person or thing denoted by the noun does not perform the action expressed by the ing-form: eg a dancing-hall (a hall for dancing), a cooking stove (a stove for cooking), walking shoes, a writing-table etc.

      If we have participle used as an attribute the person denoted by the noun performs the action expressed by the ing-form: eg a dancing girl (a girl who dances), a singing child etc.

      However, there are cases which admit of two interpretations; for example a sewing machine, may be understood in two ways: a machine for sewing and a machine which sews; a hunting dog may be a dog for hunting and a dog that hunts (34 - 35).

        1. The gerund and the verbal noun

      The gerund should not be confused with the verbal noun, which has the same suffix-ing. The main points of difference between the gerund and the verbal noun are as follows.

      1. Like all the verbals the gerund has a double character - nominal and verbal. - The verbal noun has only a nominal character.

      2. The gerund is not used with an article. - The verbal noun may be used with an article.

      The making of a new humanity cannot be the privilege of a handful of bureaucrats. - Вчинення нового людства НЕ може бути привілеєм пригорщі бюрократів.

      I want you to give my hair a good brushing. - Я хочу, щоб ти добре причесала мої волосся.

      1. The gerund has no plural form. - The verbal noun may be used in the plural.

      Our likings are regulated by our circumstances. - Наші збігу під смаки залежать від обставин.

      1. The gerund of a transitive verb takes a direct object.

      He received more and more letters, so many that he had given up reading them. - Він повчав всі більше і більше листів, так багато, що він кинув їх читати. - A verbal noun cannot take a direct object; it takes a prepositional object with the preposition of. Meanwhile Gwendolyn was rallying her nerves to the reading of the paper. - А тим часом Гвендолен діяла їй на нерви читаючи папір.

      1. The gerund may be modified by an adverb.

      Drinking, even temperately, was a sin. - Навіть випивка по свят вважається гріхом. - The verbal noun may be modified by an adjective. Tom took a good scolding about scolding Sid. - Тома добре посварили за те, що він побив камінням Сіда.

      Not having the verbal meanings, the verbal noun doesn't have the form of tenses and doesn't express any voice. After the verbal noun the direct object can't exist.

      They started the loading of the ship. - Вони приступили до навантаженні судна.

      NOTE. - One should notice that the noun is formed not from all verbs due to suffix-ing. The noun can be formed by other methods:

      To manufacture - виробляти;

      Manufacture - виробництво;

      To produce - виробляти;

      Production - виробництво;

      To sell - продавати;

      Sale - продаж;

      To ship - відвантажувати;

      Shipment - відвантаження (9, 262).

      Section 4 Comparison of the English gerund and its equivalents in Russian

      I've analyzed the gerund in Russian translations of the book by CS Lewis "The Silver Chair" (19), and "The Lion, the Which and the Wardrobe" (20).

      I've found the translation of these books by Shaposhnikova and Ostrovskaya. These books are under the edition of N. Trauberg (19; 20). One can see that the authors of the translation used a free technique of translation without paying any attention to the grammar and Russian equivalents. At first I'd like to consider the translation of the gerund, which is rendered by other Russian parts of speech (21; 22). There are:

      Without speaking - мовчання,

      for looking while - переміг,

      for not liking - не любить,

      she couldn't help thinking - їй здавалося.

      Let nothing turn your mind from following the sights! - Не забувай про знаках!

      like being in an airplane - нагадував літак.

      The sound of waves breaking on the store was growing louder - Звуки прибою ставали голосніше.

      telling - дізнатися,

      No one suggested doing anything. - Ніхто НЕ говорив, що робити далі.

      she began groping with their feet - стояла день всіх сил,

      buzzing - шепочуть.

      It's worse than coming back and finding him dead. - Краще б мені знати, що він помер.

      opening - отвір,

      saying - почулося,

      trying - вчити,

      without delivery - не встигла,

      knowing - запам'ятовування,

      looking - вирушили,

      talking of going to a party - мова йшла про гостях,

      on saying - зауважив,

      after changing - іншим,

      resting on - поклав,

      sleeping - лягти,

      stop beating - не зупинилася,

      talking of archers - про стрілах,

      for being able to shoot - навчився стріляти,

      walking - поїхали,

      there is no denying - суперечки немає,

      there was no mistaking - були впевнені,

      saying - запитав,

      without thinking - пригадати,

      for not knowing - не пам'ятати,

      without knocking - не вдаритися,

      climbing down - по східцях,

      began making tour - стали бігти

      he had to keep on pretending-с працею втримався

      looking at-витріщила очі

      without meaning-не чіпати

      talking again-згадувати

      vanishing-помічати

      feeling-вистачати

      of finding-виходити

      stepping out-надаватися

      trying on sound-немов

      by jeering-сміятися

      getting-брати

      of getting-потрапляти

      going-перелетіла

      of being smooth-не рівняв

      bringing-стукатимуть

      for keeping-дозволяти

      there was nothing stirring-колом ні руху

      wondering-задав питання

      before leaving-втік

      thinking-хотілося

      bringing-в руках

      hearing-розбирати

      saying-мовчали

      on using-терти

      (19, 4 - 121; 20, 5 - 20; 22, 4 - 65; 21, 4 - 35).

      One can see a big difference between the gerund and Russian equivalents. The thing is that the translator cannot find a direct way to render what CSLewis meant by these gerunds. The translator should see the meaning of words between lines. There is no gerund in Russian and, maybe, it was case for the translator to say like that. But if the translator followed the grammar, the awkward translation would be.

      The gerunds, which the translator couldn't translate:

      barging,

      telling,

      at believing,

      dancing,

      trying,

      of getting,

      from gong,

      learning,

      hearing,

      struggling,

      vibrating,

      without warning,

      seeing,

      being,

      wondering,

      talking in,

      from drinking,

      being carried,

      before going on,

      from bringing,

      of finding,

      ringing,

      for making,

      shifting,

      at finding,

      of catching,

      panting,

      mistaking,

      purling,

      boo-hoeing,

      for keeping,

      on remembering,

      etching,

      for shopping,

      of coming,

      on getting,

      of sitting,

      beginning,

      on standing,

      coming in,

      eagling,

      waiting,

      groping

      being

      talking

      leading

      looking out

      seeing

      being

      wondering

      talking in

      from drinking

      being carried

      before going on

      from bringing

      of finding

      ringing

      pushing

      of feeling

      wondering

      blinking in

      feeling

      sobbing

      jumping out

      tapping

      putting

      pulling

      nesting

      forgetting

      groping

      driving

      hanging down

      flying up

      champing

      blowing

      holding out

      shining

      of trying

      looking at

      rising

      looking round

      for getting

      talking about

      turning to

      talking off

      beginning to

      minding

      trailing round

      stamping

      pretending

      stamping

      stooping

      about having

      without noticing

      including

      holding

      fishing

      for caring

      looking for

      on thinking

      of going

      about being

      keeping

      crossing

      saying

      bounding back

      of scrambling

      puffing

      panting

      feeling

      looking

      running

      trying

      eating

      drinking

      passing

      on doing

      (19, 4 - 121; 20, 4 -77).

      The translator has ignored these gerunds because she couldn't reproduce Lewis 'idea and analogues of the English gerund in Russian.

      The gerund as Infinitive

      Sucking up - підлизуватися,

      believing - повірити,

      interrupting - перебивати,

      teaching - вчитися,

      getting away - тікати,

      roaring - ричати,

      snoring - фиркати,

      getting - добиратися,

      going away - відходити,

      getting to bed - лягати спати,

      ducking - починати,

      waiting - чекати,

      gliding away - уползать,

      sleeping - спати,

      finding - знаходити,

      meeting - зустрічати,

      looking - дивитися,

      of having a hot bath - приймати ванну,

      repeating - повторювати,

      reaching - добиратися,

      getting - налагоджувати,

      opening - відкривати,

      telling - говорити,

      escaping - тікати,

      asking - питати,

      running - бігти,

      slitting - ковзати.

      do stop grumbling-перестань бурчати

      talking-розмовляти

      of eating-є

      trickling-розмовляти

      jumping up-підхоплюватися

      do not go on talking like that-перестань так говорити

      handing-віддавати

      of lulling-присипляти

      turning very white-побіліти

      beginning-прийматися

      without speaking-не говорити ні слова

      of crunching-скрипіти

      panting for-переводити дихання

      on asking-питати

      bathing-купатися

      fishing-ловити рибу

      climbing-лазити

      lying-валятися

      hiding-ховатися

      on teasing-подразнівать

      hanging up-висіти

      on eating-їсти

      coming-приходити

      standing-стояти

      nagging-дражнити

      encouraging-підтримувати

      before coming out-ви лазити

      telling-розповідати

      trying-пробувати

      jeering-дражнити

      fumbling-намацувати

      sticking-колоти

      putting-одягатися

      changing-переводити

      walking-крокувати

      harboring-прилягати

      fraternizing-брататися

      for going back-повертатися

      standing-стояти

      on boiling-кипіти

      of getting-потрапляти

      knocking-трястися

      doing things-діяти

      in looking for-шукати

      of saving-рятуватися

      talking of-заговорити

      telling-розповідати

      knocking-трястися

      bundling-одягати

      fussing-хвилюватися

      talking-базікати

      moving-ходити

      helping-допомагати

      from seeing-бачити

      about closing-закриватися

      leading-підніматися

      The gerund as a finite form of the verb

      Talking about - говорила,

      shouting out - донеслося,

      hoping - сподівалися,

      tarring - миготіли,

      grabbing - вчепився,

      singing - співали,

      running across - бігли через,

      scooping out - зачерпнула,

      moving - рухалися,

      glittering - сяяли,

      in blessing - благословляв,

      leading - пішла,

      beginning - почав,

      coughing - покашлював,

      ringing - дзвонив,

      ruffling - зашелестіли,

      speaking - заговорили,

      blowing - дух,

      sitting - сидів,

      fishing - вудил,

      walking - ходив,

      hurtling - промайнуло,

      telling - говорила,

      loitering down - впали,

      throwing - кидав,

      no time in turning and leading the way back - не втрачаючи часу

      відправилися назад,

      stumbling - пошкандибав,

      pottering - минули,

      rushing out - кинулися,

      laughing - сміялися,

      looking about - озирнулась,

      coughing - кахикнула,

      glancing over - обернулася,

      reeling-похитнулась

      handing up-висіло

      leaving-залишила

      falling-падали

      coming-наближалися

      from trailing-волочився

      picking up-підбирав

      hiding-сховалася

      sweeping-неслися

      jingling-дзвеніли

      cracking-клацав

      coming out-виривався

      saying nothing-мовчав

      speaking-сказала

      asking-питала

      kept on saying-знову відповідав

      calling out-кричала

      setting-завів

      listening to-слухав

      interrupting-переривав

      telling - розповідала

      panting-зачаїлися

      hanging-висіли

      leading-рушив

      of comforting-давав притулок

      holding breaths-затамували дихання

      saying-сказав

      looking down-розкинулося

      preparing-приготувалися

      shaking-похитав

      plunging-занурилися

      falling-йде

      swirling-заліплювали

      slipping-пов'язав

      skidding-ковзав

      sliding down-провалювався

      barking-обдирав

      off thinking-розмріявся

      sliding off-пробирався

      his heart stopped beating-його серце пішло в п'яти

      beating-билося

      about standing-стояли

      picking up-підняла

      laying-поклала

      walking-йшли

      bundling-вивалилися

      bringing-захопила

      stopping-зупинилася

      jolting-застрявали

      on slipping-ковзали

      looking-дивився

      running-кинувся

      The gerund as a noun or verbal noun

      Scrambling up - карабканье,

      blowing - подих,

      crying - плач,

      speaking - голос,

      standing - стояти,

      sobbing - схлипування,

      watching - перегляд,

      growing - потовщення,

      coming - прибуття,

      coughing - кашель,

      hauling - стогін,

      blubbering - схлипування,

      staying - візит,

      the idea of having a good time - думка,

      as being kissed - поцілунок,

      walking - прогулянка.

      laughing-сміх

      walking-шлях

      feasting-бенкет

      treasure seeking-пошук скарбів

      calling-зов

      of cooking-обід

      meeting-зустріч

      there was nothing stirring-колом ні руху

      jeering-витівка

      fussing-тривога

      Passive Gerund

      At being waked again - коли розбудили,

      we're safe from being drowned in the river - чим потонемо,

      without being seen - непомітно.

      The gerund as an attribute

      Dazzling - розвіваються.

      of being smooth-не рівний

      being nice-ласкавіше

      of flowering-квітучий

      in thinking-цікавий

      The gerund as дієприслівник

      Jumping - вспригнув

      looking up-кинувши погляд

      pushing away-поставивши

      cocking-скосивши

      THE CONCLUSION

      The aim of my paper was the analysis and translation of gerunds. As you see it was difficult for the translator of CSLewis 'book to present us the gerund as it was used in the book. The translator and we don't know what CSLewis wanted to say using the gerund. Perhaps, he used gerund so because the grammar rules demanded or it was easy to apply the gerund in this or that situation. I would translate the gerund as our translator did because it suited to Russian equivalents, situation, words etc. If the context demands the changes in the translation because it doesn't sound good in Russian, why not apply the translation, which is far from the original. One shouldn't abuse a free translation, because the reader might not understand a general or main point of the book.

      As you see CSLewis used himself the gerund frequently after the prepositions.

      There are only five Passive gerunds in the whole two books.

      If the translator followed the rules, the translation should be awkward and in understandable for reader. You know, there is no rule without exception and the translator often used such exceptions.

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