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English language for technical colleges

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UNIT 1

ABOUT MYSELF

I. Голосні звуки [i], [i:].

II. Text A: «About myself»,

Text B: «My Biography».

III. Особисті займенники, певний і невизначений артикль, множина іменників.

Phonetic warm-up (Фонетична розминка)

Голосний звук [i] При проголошенні короткого голосного звуку [i] кінчик язика знаходиться біля основи нижніх зубів: відтінок російського звуку [і] в словах шити, шило практично збігається з англійським [i]: it, sit, in

Голосний звук [i:] При проголошенні довгого голосного [i:] мова просунутий вперед, кінчик язика стосується нижніх зубів, губи кілька розтягнуті і злегка оголюють зуби. Відтінок російського звуку [і] в словах верба, ярмо, ігри, хати практично збігається з англійським звуком [i:].

Поєднання її, еа - читаються [i:]. Наприклад, meet, peat.

Довгота звуку впливає на лексичне значення слова.

Наприклад: feet (ноги) - fit (вміщатися), steel (сталь) - still (все ще)

Exercise A

lead - lid

if - it - tip - kit

did - bill

mill - meal

pill - peel

keel - kill

sit - seat

Exercise У

beat - bin

it - seat

steel - still

feel - fill - feet

fit - eat - bean

simple - Pete - feel - peel

meet - meat - ill - bill - steel - feel Exercise D

be - been - bean

did - deed

pit - peat

fit - feet

it - eat

lid - lead

Exercise З

bin - bean

me - meet - meat

see - seat - seed

meal - seal - mean

pea - Pete - peat

sea ​​- see - meet

bee - been - feet

mean - lean - keen

Exercise E

I see a sea. I see a clean sheet. I eat meat. I like meat.

I like tea. I make tea. I take tea. I like fine tea. I like fine meals.

People make steel. People make fine steel. People make steel pipes. People make fine steel planes. I like life. I like kind people. I like kind smiles. I feel fine. I smile.

Text A: "ABOUT MYSELF"

Hello, friends. Let me first introduce myself. My name is Ann or Anya for my friends. My surname or last name is Sokolova. I was born on the 2 nd of October in Sochi, Krasnodarsky Krai. This is the most beautiful city in Russia situated on the Black Sea coast. Now I am a first-year student at the Technical Academy. In five years I'll be an engineer.

Now let me describe my appearance. I am tall and slim and have fair hair and blue eyes. My friends say that I am pretty. I think I am just good-looking. I love sports and music. I was very serious about a career in gymnastics when I was in the 5 th form. But then I broke my arm and doctors didn't let me go in for gymnastics. I love to listen to modern music and dance. I dance a lot and I hope I am good at it. I also love swimming. I always swim in the Black sea when I visit my parents, my dear family.

I would like to tell you about my family. There are five people in our family. My father's name is Vladimir Stepanovich. He is a mathematician by education and businessman by profession. My mother's name is Tatyana Petrovna. She is a housewife. She has much work about the house because I have a younger sister. She is a pupil. My sister Natasha is in the fifth form. My grandmother, my mother's mother, lives with us. She is very kind and helps us a lot.

Our family is very friendly, we have many friends. In summer many relatives come to visit us. And, of course, they use a chance to spend several weeks in beautiful Sochi.

In May I have finished school No 5 in Sochi. I did well in all the subjects but my favourite subjects at school were Physics and Computer Science. I also enjoyed English lessons.

I am very interested in learning English because I always wanted to become a programmer or maybe a businesswoman. I also think that the knowledge of foreign languages ​​helps in everyday life and career.

Two years ago I travelled much around Europe. I have visited France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. There the knowledge of English helped me a lot.

As you see, 'my biography isn't very long yet. But we'll meet again in the next lesson and I'll tell you more about myself. See you later ...

Vocabulary:

introduce - представляти, знайомити

Black Sea coast - узбережжя Чорного моря

a first-year student - студент (ка) першого курсу

region - область

appearance - зовнішність

slim - струнка

career - кар'єра

gymnastics - гімнастика

mathematician - математик

housewife - домогосподарка

several - кілька

to do well - зд. встигати

chance - випадок, шанс

kind - добрий

a lot - багато

the Netherlands - Нідерланди

the United Kingdom - Сполучене Королівство (Великобританія) ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY

(Поповнити СВІЙ АКТИВНИЙ СЛОВНИК):

tall - високий

short - маленького зросту

stout - присадкуватий, кремезний

slim - стрункий

fat - товстий

plumpy - повний

fair hair - світле волосся

blonde - блондин (ка)

brunette - брюнет (ка)

gray hair - сиве волосся

bold headed - лисий

short sighted - короткозорий

smart, clever, bright - розумний (я)

stupid - тупий, дурний

boring - нудний

fun to be with - весела людина

easy to go along - легкий у спілкуванні

quiet - спокійний

impulsive - поривчастий, імпульсивний

aggressive - агресивний

rude - нечемний, грубий

shy, confused - сором'язливий

active - активний

talkative - говіркий

enthusiastic - ентузіаст, витівник

Exercise 1.1. Please, introduce yourself. The questions below will certainly help you:

1. What is your name?

2. Where and when were you born?

3. How old are you?

5. Have you got a family?

6. How many people are there in your family?

7. Do you have brothers, sisters, grandparents in your family?

8. Where do you live?

9. Did you study well at school?

10. What school did you finish?

11. Did your teacher of English help you to choose your future profession?

12. What was your favourite subject?

13. What do you like to read?

14. What sport do you go in for?

15. What are you going to be?

16. Do you still live with your parents?

17. Do you have a girlfriend / boyfriend?

Exercise 1.2. Bring a picture of a person you know well (mother, father, grandfather, friend) to class. Show it and describe that person. Use the active vocabulary of the unit.

Text B: "MY BIOGRAPHY"

after Mark Twain

I was born on the 30-th of November 1 835 in the village of Florida, Missouri. My father was John Marshal Clemens.

According to tradition some of my great-great parents were pirates and slave traders - a respectable trade in the 16-th century. In my time I wished to be a pirate myself.

Florida contained a hundred people and when I was born I increased the population by one per cent. It had two streets and a lot of lanes. Both the streets and the lanes were paved (мостити) with the same material - black mud in wet times, deep dust in dry. Most of the houses were of wood - there were none of brick and none of stone. Everywhere around were fields and woods.

My uncle was a farmer. I have never met a better man than he was. He was a middle-aged man whose head was clear and whose heart was honest and simple. I stayed at his house for three months every year till I was thirteen years old. Nowhere else was I happier than at his house. He had eight children and owned about fourteen Negro slaves whom he had bought from other farmers. My uncle and everyone on the farm treated the slaves kindly. All the Negroes on the farm were friends of ours and with those of our own age we were playmates. Since my childhood I have learned to like the black race and admire some of its fine qualities. In my school days nobody told me that it was wrong to sell and buy people. It is only much later that I realized all the horror of slavery.

The country school was three miles from my uncle's farm. It stood in a forest and could take in about twenty five boys and girls. We attended school once or twice a week. I was a sickly (кволий) child and lived mainly on medicine the first seven years of my life.

When I was twelve years old my father died. After my father's death our family was left penniless. I was taken from school at once and placed in the office of a local newspaper as printer's apprentice (підмайстер) where I could receive board and clothes but no money.

For ten years I worked in printshops of various cities. I started my journalistic life as a reporter on a newspaper in San Francisco-. It was then that I began to sign my publications by my penname Mark Twain.

General understanding:

1. In what state was Samuel Clemens born?

2. What were the great-great parents of Mark Twain?

3. What did Mark Twain want to be?

4. What were the streets and lanes of Florida paved with?

5. How does the author describe his uncle?

6. How many slaves did Mark Twain's uncle own?

7. What was the author's attitude toward slavery?

8. Was Mark Twain a healthy boy?

9. When did the author start his career of a writer?

GRAMMAR

Невизначений і певний артиклі. Невизначений артикль a (an) походить від числівника one (один), певний - від вказівного займенника that (той).

Артикль вживається:

перед кожним загальним іменником.

Якщо перед іменником артикль не вживається, то треба вміти пояснити, чому.

Артикль не вживається якщо перед іменником варто:

вказівний або присвійний займенник,

інше іменник в присвійний відмінку,

кількісний числівник,

заперечення no.

Наприклад: This is my book. It's friend's book. I have one book.

Згадуючи предмет вперше, ми вживаємо перед ним невизначений артикль а (ап). Згадуючи цей же предмет вдруге, ми ставимо перед ним визначений артикль the. Наприклад: This is a book. The book is interesting.

Невизначений артикль a (an)

вживається перед одиничним, окремим предметом, який ми не виділяємо з класу йому подібних. Невизначений артикль an зазвичай стоїть перед іменником, яке починається з голосного звуку: an apple, an egg.

Наприклад: I bought a book yesterday. Я купив вчора книгу (одну з багатьох їй подібних). I have an apple. У мене є яблуко (одне, якесь).

Невизначений артикль a (an) може вживатися тільки з обчислювальними іменниками, що стоять в однині. Перед неісчісляемимі іменниками або іменниками у множині невизначений артикль опускається.

Невизначений артикль не вживається:

а) з неісчісляемимі і «абстрактними» іменниками:

I like coffee and tea. Friendship is very important in our life.

б) з іменниками в множині:

They are students now.

в) з іменами власними:

I told Jane about that.

г) з іменниками, перед якими стоять присвійні або вказівні займенники:

This car is better than that. My bike is old.

д) з іменниками, за якими слід кількісний числівник, що позначає номер:

I have read page eight of the magazine.

Невизначений артикль а необхідний у конструкціях:

I have a. .. This is a. .. I am a. .. What a fine day! I see a. .. There is a. .. He is a. ..

Певний артикль the виділяє предмет або предмети з класу їм подібних:

The book I bought yesterday was interesting - Книга, яку я купив вчора, була цікавою (це - конкретна книга, яку мовець виділяє з класу їй подібних).

Певний артикль the вживається як із обчислюваними, так і з неісчісляемимі іменниками, як з єдиним, так і з множиною.

Наприклад: This is a book. The book is interesting (обчислювана однині).

This is meat. The meat is fresh, (неісчісляемое)

These are books. The books are good. (Множинне число).

Певний артикль вживається:

а) коли відомо (з контексту, з навколишнього оточення) про який предмет (предмети, явища) йде мова: Open the door, please. I am going to the Academy.

б) коли мова йде про єдиний у своєму роді предмет або явище: The moon is shining brightly.

в) коли іменник має обмежує визначення, найчастіше з прийменником of.

I don't know the name of this pupil.

г) у словосполученнях типу in the north, to the west, at the cinema, the same, in the country, the rest of the ...

д) якщо перед іменником варто прикметник у найвищому ступені

This is the most interesting book.

e) перед порядковими числівниками

He lives on the fifth floor.

Географічні назви і артикль

З географічними назвами і з іменами власними, артикль, як правило, не вживається, крім наступних випадків:

а) з назвами морів, річок, океанів, гірських хребтів, груп островів використовується визначений артикль: the Pacific Ocean, the Black Sea, the Thames, the British Isles.

б) визначений артикль використовується з кількома назвами країн, областей і міст, (хоча звичайно з цими типами назв артикль не використовується):

the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Netherlands, the Hague, the Riviera, the Congo, the West Indies

в) визначений артикль використовується з назвами країн типу:

the Russian Federation, the United States of America, the United Kingdom.

г) перед збірним ім'ям сім'ї The Petrovs - Петрови

Exercise 1.3. Translate into Russian. Explain the use (використання) of definite (визначених) and indefinite (невизначених) articles:

1. Last week I met my friend. He was with a young girl. The girl was a student of our Academy. 2. This is a pencil. The pencil is red. 3. She is a teacher. She is our teacher of English. 4. It is a lake. The lake is deep. It's one of the deepest lakes in the world. 5. There are many flowers in your garden. The flowers are beautiful. 6. Did you write a plan? Give me your plan, please. Is this plan effective? 7. The Black Sea is in the South of Russia. 8. This is Mike. He works as an engineer. Mike is a highly qualified engineer. 9. There are some schools in our street. The schools are new. 10. Gagarin was the first cosmonaut of the world. 11. In summer the sky is blue and the sun shines brightly. 12. The Petrovs are very friendly. 13. This is Ann's book. I don't like such books. 14. Winter begins in December.

Exercise 1.4. Insert (вставте) the article where necessary:

1. This ... pencil is broken. Give me that ... pencil, please. 2. I can see three ... boys .... boys are playing. 3.1 have ... bicycle .... bicycle is black. My ... friend has no ... bicycle. 4. Our ... room is large. 5. We wrote ... dictation yesterday .... dictation was long. 6. She has two ... daughters and one ... son. Her ... son is ... pupil. 7. My ... brother's ... friend has no ... dog. 8. This is ... tree .... tree is green. 9. She has ... ball .... ball is ... big. 10. I got ... letter from my ... friend yesterday .... letter was interesting.

Exercise 1.5. Use the articles a, an, the where it is necessary:

1. Yesterday I saw ... new film, but ... film wasn't very interesting. 2. London is situated on ... Thames. 3. Yuri Gagarin was ... first man to fly over ... Earth in spaceship. 4. My daughter will go school ... next year. 5.1 decided to visit ... Ivanovs, but they were not at ... home 6. In ... summer we live in ... country. 7. Lomonosov, ... great Russian scientist, was born in ... small village on ... shore of ... White Sea. 8 .... United States of America is one of ... most powerful countries of the world. 9. Is your dress made ​​of ... silk or ... cotton? 10 ... Peter's brother is ... student and we are ... pupils.11. What would you like: ... apple or ... orange? 12. What ... strange man he is!

Exercise 1.5. Use the articles a, an, the where it is necessary:

I. .. Volga is ... longest river in ... Europe. 2 .... History and ... Literature were ... my favourite subjects at ... school. 3.What is ... nearest way to ... Drama Theatre? 4 .... butter and ... cheese are made ​​of ... milk. 5. Usually I get up at ... 7 o'clock in ... morning. 6 ... Rostov is situated on ... Don. 7. Will you have ... cup of ... tea? 8.What ... good friend you are! 9. We shall go to ... cinema ... next week together with ... Petrovs. 10. This is ... book, ... book is very interesting. 11. Do you see ... sun in ... sky today? 12.He is ... engineer by ... profession.

Exercise 1.6. Insert (вставте) the article where necessary:

Three men came to ... New York for ... holiday. They came to ... very large hotel and took ... room there. Their room was on ... forty-fifth floor. In ... evening ... friends went to ... theatre and came back to ... hotel very late.

«I am very sorry,» said ... clerk of ... hotel, «but ... lifts do not work tonight. If you don't want to walk up to your room, we shall make ... beds for you in ... hall. »« No, no, »said one of ... friends, «no, thank you. We don't want to sleep in ... hall. We shall walk up to our room. »

Then he turned to his friends and said: «It is not easy to walk up to ... forty-fifth floor, but we shall make it easier. On ... way to ... room I shall tell you some jokes; then you, Andy, will sing us some songs; then you, Peter, will tell us some interesting stories. »So they began walking up to their room. Tom told them many jokes; Andy sang some songs.

At last they came to ... thirty sixth floor. They were tired and decided to have ... rest. «Well,» said Tom, «now it is your turn, Peter. After all ... jokes, I would like to hear ... sad story. Tell us ... long and interesting story with ... sad end. »« ... story which I am going to tell you, »said Peter,« is sad enough. We left ... key to our room in ... hall. »

Освіта множини іменників.

Множина іменників (крім тих, у яких основа закінчується на-ch,-s,-ss,-sh,-х) утворюється шляхом додавання до основи закінчення-s: a boy - boys, a trick - tricks, a pen-pens, a girl - girls.

Множина іменників, основа яких закінчується на-ch,-s,-ss,-sh,-x, а також іменників, що мають, як правило, закінчення-о, утворюється шляхом додавання до основи закінчення-es; a bench - benches, a bus-buses, a glass - glasses, a box - boxes, a potato - potatoes.

Іменники, що закінчуються на-у (після приголосної) у множині мають закінчення-ies: an army - armies, a fly - flies, a lady - ladies. Кінцеве f (-fe), як правило, змінюється на-ves:

a calf - calves, a knife - knives, a shelf - shelves,

a wife - wives (але: roof - roofs).

Ряд іменників утворює множина не за загальними правилами:

а) змінюється коренева голосна:

a man - men, a woman - women, a foot - feet, a tooth - teeth, a goose - geese, a mouse - mice

б) додається закінчення-en:

an ox - oxen. a child - children.

в) запозичуються форми однини і множини з латинської та грецької мов:

a formula - formulae (formulas), a crisis - crises, a criterion - criteria, an index - indices, a bacterium - bacteria, an axis - axes

В англійській мові є іменники, які мають одну (загальну) форму для єдиного і множини: a deer (олень) - deer (олені), a sheep (вівця) - sheep (Вівці), a fish риба) - fish (Риби), a swine (свиня) - swine (свині).

Деякі іменники мають тільки однину: advice, information, news. knowledge, furniture, luggage.

Деякі - тільки множину, clothes, riches, damages, goods, looks, manners, thanks.

Запам'ятайте:

this is - these are

that is - those are

there is - there are

it is - they are

Exercise 1.7. Decide which of the following nouns are countable (обчислювані) or uncountable (неісчісляемие):

Time, water, machine, music, snow, word, coffee, money, idea, family, darkness, knowledge, sea hour. tree, silver, meat, happiness, information, speed, book, news, house, friend, milk, student, pen, paper, clothes picture, air, goods.

Exercise 1.8. Read and translate the sentences. Decide which of the underlined nouns (іменників) are countable or uncountable and explain why:

1. We have read all the official papers. There were some sheets of paper on the table. 2.Two coffees, please. I like strong coffee. 3. Give me two glasses. Are they made ​​of glass or plastics? 4. Many thousands of bricks are produced at the factory. Our school is built of brick.

Exercise 1.9. Write down the following nouns in plural.

Box, sheep, place, library, photo, mouse, lady, glass, bush, dress, country, bus, party, wife, day, knife, knowledge, month, pen, hero, goose, company, life, deer, tomato, city, man, play, news, child, fruit, shelf, leaf, foot, fish, woman, money, information.

Exercise 1.10. Write down the following nouns in plural:

A star, a mountain, a tree, a waiter, the queen, a man, a woman, an eye, a shelf, a box, a city, a boy, a goose, a watch, a mouse, a dress, a toy , a sheep, a tooth, a child, an ox, a deer, a life, a tomato.

Exercise 1.11. Write down the following nouns in plural:

this man, that match, this tea-cup, this egg, that wall, that picture, this foot, that mountain, this lady, that window, this knife

Exercise 1.12. Put the following sentences in plural and write them down. Pay attention to the changes of the verb (дієслово):

1. A new house is in our street. 2. This story is very interesting. 3. There was a woman, a man, a boy and a girl in the room. 4. In the farm-yard we could see an ox, a sheep, a cow and a goose. 5. Put this knife on that table. 6. Why don't you eat this potato? 7. This strawberry is still green. 8. A yellow leaf has fallen to the ground. 9. Can you see a bird in that tree? 10. Does your tooth still ache? 11. I held up my foot to the fire to warm it. 12. His child studies very well. 13. Is this worker an Englishman or a German? - He is a Frenchman. 14. What is that child's name? 15. The cat has caught a mouse. 16. I have hurt my foot. 17. The wolf has been shot. 18. He keeps his toy in a box. 19. This man works at our office.

Exercise 1.13. Put the following sentences in plural and write them down. Pay attention to the changes of the verb:

1. This is my stocking. 2. He has a new suit. 3. This metal is very hard. 4. That ship is a Russian one. 5. I heard her voice. 6. His dog does not like bread. 7. The plate was on the table. 8. This town is very large. 9. I was talking to her at the tram stop yesterday. 10. Is that girl your sister? 11. I shall give you my book. 12. This story will be a good one. 13. Is this a good match? 14. The boy put his book on the desk. 15. She took off her hat. 16. That house is new. 17. The pupil put his book into the bag. 18. Is this student coming with us, too? 19. The woman didn't say anything. 20. Does she speak English?

Присвійний відмінок іменників

Examples: The child's toys - The children's toys

The boy's books - The boys 'books

Exercise 1.14. Use the Possessive Case of the Nouns:

Example: The poems of Lermontov. (Lermontov's poems).

1. The toy of their children. 2. The questions of my son. 3. The wife of my brother. 4. The table of our teacher. 5. The life of animals. 6. The voice of this girl. 7. The new tool of the workers. 8. The letter of Peter. 9. The car of my parents. 10 The room of my friend. 11. The handbags of these women. 12. The flat of my sister is large. 13. The children of my brother are at home. 14. The room of the boys is large.

Exercise 1.15. Translate into English.

1. Це сім'я мого друга. Батько мого друга - інженер. Мати мого друга - вчитель. 2. Вона взяла книги свого брата. 3. Дайте мені зошити ваших учнів. 4. Ви бачили книгу нашого вчителя? 5. Вчора діти мого брата ходили в кіно. 6. Він показав мені листа своєї сестри. 7. Чия це сумка? - Це сумка Петра. 8. Чиї це словники? - Це словники студентів. 9. Принесіть іграшки дітей.

UNIT 2

MY WORKING DAY

I. Голосні звуки [е], [æ].

II. Text A: «My working day»,

Text B: «Nick's usual working day».

III. Ступені порівняння прикметників і прислівників, порядок слів в англійському реченні, типи питань.

Голосний звук [е]

При проголошенні голосного [е] маса мови знаходиться в передній частині ротової порожнини. Кінчик мови знаходиться у нижніх зубів. Губи злегка розтягнуті. Звук близький до російського звуку [е] в словах ці, жерсть.

Голосний звук [æ]

При вимові звуку [æ] губи кілька розтягнуті, нижня щелепа сильно опущена, кінчик язика стосується нижніх зубів, а середня спинка язика трохи вигинається вперед і догори.

Exercise A

am - Ann - lamp

man - can - cat

sat - hat - bat

Pat - rat - cam

tanned - tent

fan-fen

man - men

pat - pet

Exercise У

tan - ten

pan - pen

bad - bed

land - lend

Exercise C

bat - bet

pet - net - red

let - met

ten - pen - • men - hen

Text A: «MY WORKING DAY»

Hi again ... As you already know, I am a first-year student of the Technical Academy. My parents live in Sochi and I study in Rostov-on-Don so I need some housing. There are two opportunities for me: I can live in a dormitory (a students hostel), or to rent a flat (an apartment).

I decided to rent a flat. To make the rent smaller, I also decided to share my flat with another girl - Natasha Kozlova. She studies at the Academy, too, and she is my best friend now. I'll tell you more about her later.

Now, let me describe my usual working day. My classes begin at 8:30. So on week-days I have to get up at 7:15.1 don't have an alarm clock and usually my roommate wakes me up and my working day begins. I turn on the radio and do my morning exercises while Natasha takes a shower. I don't take a bath in the morning because I don't have enough time for it. I take a cool shower (that's when I completely wake up), brush my teeth. After that I go back to our room and get dressed. I brush my hair and put on a light make-up. Then we have breakfast. Natasha makes breakfast every Monday, Wednesday and Friday. I have to serve breakfast on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. I love to listen to the latest news on the radio while I am eating and Natasha prefers light music.

We leave the house at ten minutes past eight and walk to the nearest bus-stop. We live rather far from the Academy and it usually takes us about a quarter of an hour to get there by bus. Sometimes when the weather is fine and we have enough time we walk to the Academy. It is very healthy to walk much.

The classes begin at 8:30 in the morning and they end at 2:00 pm We have lectures in different subjects. As a rule we have three or four classes a day. Sometimes it is very hard to wait till they end.

Usually I don't miss my classes because I want to pass my exams successfully. But sometimes I do, especially when the weather is fine and the classes are boring.

At 11:50 we have lunch. That's my favourite time. That is the time to share the latest news and to gossip. My friends and I prefer not to go to the canteen and we often have lunch in a small cafe not too far from the Academy. At 12:30 we have to be back to our classes. During the working day we also have several short breaks that last for ten minutes.

Occasionally I have to stay at the Academy till 5 or even 6 o'clock in the evening because I go to the library to get ready for my practical classes or to write a report. As a rule I have no free time on week-days . So by the end of the week I get very tired.

We come home at about 7 o'clock in the evening. We eat supper together and share the latest news.

After supper we wash dishes, drink coffee or tea and watch TV. I prefer old comedies and Natasha likes serials or films about travelling. Sometimes Natasha and I go for a walk in the park or visit our friends.

At about eleven at night I go to bed. I like to read something before going to bed and Natasha likes to listen to some music. Sometimes I fall asleep while I am reading and Natasha gets up and switches off the light and says - Good night!

Vocabulary:

housing - житло

opportunity - можливість

dormitory, students hostel - студентський гуртожиток

to rent a flat (an apartment) - знімати квартиру

to share - ділити (-ся)

week-days - будні дні

alarm clock - будильник

usually - зазвичай

roommate - сусід по кімнаті

rather - досить

to turn on (off) - включати, вимикати

enough - досить

completely - повністю, абсолютно

to get dressed - одягатися

to serve - обслуговувати

make up - макіяж

while - поки що, в той час як

to prefer - віддавати перевагу

healthy - здоровий, корисний

to miss - пропускати

successfully - успішно

boring - нудний

to gossip - пліткувати

have to be back - повинні повернутися

break - перерва

report - доповідь

share - ділитися

canteen - їдальня

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY

tape-recorder - магнітофон

to brush one's hair - зачісувати волосся

it takes me ... minutes to get to the Academy by bus - у мене йде ... хвилин, щоб дістатися до Академії на автобусі

cloackroom - гардероб

upstairs - нагорі, вгору по сходах

downstairs - внизу, вниз по сходах

to miss classes - пропускати заняття

to pass exams - здати іспити

to do well - робити успіхи, добре вчитися

for the first (second) course - на перше (друге) блюдо

to get ready - підготуватися

as a rule - як правило

to get tired - втомитися

to take pleasure in - отримувати задоволення від ...

to look forward to - чекати з нетерпінням

acquaintance - знайомий

Exercise 2.1. Write one sentence with each word:

1. Usual - usually - as usual - unusual

2. occasion - occasional - occasionally

3. to end - to finish - to be over

4. to start - to begin - to get ready for

5. on Sunday - at five o'clock - in cafeteria ...

6. full time student - part time student

7. freshman - second year student - school graduate

Exercise 2.2. Translate into English:

бути студентом (студенткою) денного відділення

розповісти вам про ...

• в будні дні

• прокидатися - вставати о 7 годині ранку

• включати магнітофон

• приймати душ

• чистити зуби

• одягатися

• слухати останні новини

• У мене йде годину, щоб дістатися до інституту

• їздити на автобусі (тролейбусі, трамваї)

• спізнюватися на заняття

• закінчуватися о 15:50 вечора

• пропускати заняття

• здати іспити успішно

• час від часу

• підготуватися до занять

• як правило

• втомитися

• приходити додому

• бути вдома

мати вільний час

Exercise 2.3. Tell about your typical day. The following questions will help you:

1. Do you get up early?

2. Is it easy for you to get up early?

3. Do you wake up yourself or does your alarm-clock wake you up?

4. Do you do your morning exercises?

5. What do you prefer: a hot or a cold shower in the morning?

6. How long does it take you to get dressed?

7. What do you usually have for breakfast?

8. Some people look through newspapers or listen to the latest news on the radio while having breakfast. What about you?

9. When do you usually leave your house?

10. Do you work? If yes, where?

11. How long does it take you to get to your Academy (Institute)?

12. Do you go there by bus / trolley-bus or walk?

13. Where do you usually have lunch (dinner)?

14. What time do you come home?

15. How long does it take you to do your homework?

16. How do you usually spend your evenings?

17. Do you have a lot of free time?

18. Do you play any musical instrument?

19. Are you fond of listening to music?

20. What kind of music do you prefer?

21. Do you collect anything (stamps, records, postcards, coins, matchboxes, etc.)?

22. What time do you usually go to bed?

Exercise 2.4. Tell about:

a) the working-day of your father or mother

b) the usual weekend at home

c) the best day of your life

d) a holiday spent with your friends or relatives (New Year's day, Christmas, 8 th of March)

e) the working day of famous people (writers, artists, politicians etc.)

Text В: «NICK'S USUAL WORKING DAY»

Hi, nice to meet you all!

My name is Nick Price. I am a freshman at MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I am not from Boston myself. I was born in Vermilion, Ohio, not far from Cleveland.

My family is not very rich, that is why I can't afford to live on a campus. But it is a rule, that every student must reside during his or her freshman year on the campus. To cover some of the expenses I've got to work part-time on the campus. I work in cafeteria.

Now let me tell you about my usual working day. I wake up at seven in the morning. My alarm-clock radio is tuned to my favourite radio station. My roommate Todd Hall is a football player. He jogs every morning at 6:30. He is still out jogging when I get up. First I take a cold shower and brush my teeth. Then I dress myself up and rush to work - to the University cafeteria. I wash dishes and clean the tables. It is not a very interesting job, I know that, but soon I'll be a cook and will earn more. My boss Suzie is very strict but very nice when you do your job properly.

My first class starts at 11:15. The professor is never late for his classes. The lecture hall we sit in has about 100 seats. MIT is a very big school. I think that it is the best school of science and technology in the US.

At 2:00 pm I eat lunch at school cafeteria. The food is free for me because I work there. I am a vegetarian and I don't like drinks with caffeine. I prefer cool filtered water or juice.

Then I have two more classes. I need to go to the library right after the classes to do my homework. There I meet my friends and we talk a lot. Twice a week I play basketball with my friends. I swim once a week. Usually after library we go out to the cafe or just sit outside and talk.

I have dinner at 6:00 pm at the little Chinese restaurant not too far from the dormitory or I cook myself in the kitchen in my dorm. My favourite food is salami pizza and potato salad.

After dinner I watch TV or play ping-pong with my friends. When it is Friday, we go to the football game.

I usually read before I go to bed. It calms me down after the long day. I guess, that's pretty much it for now. See you later!

General understanding:

1. Where does Nick Price study?

2. What year of study is he in?

3. Is Nick from Boston?

4. Is Nick's family a rich one?

5. What is Nick's job? Do you think he enjoys it?

6. Is Massachusetts Institute of Technology a good school?

7. Where does Nick spend his evenings?

8. What does Nick usually do on Friday nights?

GRAMMAR

§ 1. Ступені порівняння прикметників і прислівників

1. Односкладові (і деякі двоскладові) прикметники і прислівники утворюють порівняльну ступінь шляхом додавання суфікса -ЕR, чудову - шляхом додавання суфікса -Est:

high - higher - the highest (високий - вищий - найвищий),

big - bigger - the biggest (великий - більше - найбільший).

Прикметники і прислівники, що закінчуються на - у, змінюють закінчення на-ier і - iest.

Кінцева приголосна у односкладових прикметників і прислівників подвоюється.

Наприклад: happy - happier - the happiest. hot - hotter - the hottest

2. Багатоскладові прикметники і прислівники, що закінчуються на -1У, утворюють

порівняльну ступінь шляхом додавання слів more (less),

чудову - шляхом додавання слів most (least)

interesting - more (less) interesting - most (least) interesting,

easily - more (less) easily - most (least) easily.

3. Ряд прикметників і прислівників є винятками:

good, well (гарний, добре) - better (краще) - the best (найкращий),

bad (поганий) - worse (гірше) - the worst (найгірший)

little (маленький, мало) - less (менше) - the least (найменший)

many (much) - more - the most

far - farther (further) - the farthest (furthest)

Іменник, визначається прикметником у найвищому ступені, завжди має визначений артикль: the largest building.

Exercise 2.5. Make up comparative and superlative forms of the listed below adjectives (прикметники) and adverbs (прислівники):

1. large, tall, long, easy, hot, big, cold, nice, bad, strong, short, wide, good, happy, high, low, busy, well, little, many, far.

2. wonderful, necessary, quickly, interesting, comfortable, popular, active, famous, pleasant, beautiful, slowly, clearly.

Exercise 2.6. Open the brackets using the right form of adjectives:

1. Winter is (cold) season of the year. 2. Moscow is (large) than St. Petersburg. 3. Which is (long) day of the year? 4. The Alps are (high) mountains in Europe. 5. Even (long) day has an end. 6. It is one of (important) questions of our conference. 7. Your English is (good) now. 8. Who knows him (well) than you? 9. We have (little) interest in this work than you. 10. Health is (good) than wealth. 11. Your son worked (well) of all. 12. Today you worked (slowly) than usually.

Exercise 2.7. Translate the sentences:

1. This book is not so interesting as that one. 2. The Baltic Sea is not so warm as the Black Sea. 3. The more you read, the more you know. 4. My brother is not as tall as you are. 5. The earlier you get up, the more you can do. 6. Today the wind is as strong as it was yesterday. 7. Your room is as light as mine. 8. John knows Russian as well as English. 9. Mary is not so lazy as her brother. 10. The longer the night is, the shorter the day. 11. The less people think, the more they talk.

Exercise 2.8. Translate the sentences:

1. Лев Толстой - один з найпопулярніших письменників у світі.

2. Цей роман цікавіше, ніж той.

3. Ваш будинок вище нашого? Ні, він такий же високий, як і ваш.

4. Це - сама прекрасна картина у всій колекції.

5. Населення Російської Федерації більше населення Великобританії.

6. Він виконав роботу швидше, ніж ви.

7. Австралія - одна з найменш населених країн.

8. Його робота краще вашої, але робота Ганни - найкраща.

9. Росія - найбільша країна в світі.

10. Я живу не так далеко від інституту, як мій друг.

11. У липні стільки ж днів, скільки і в серпні.

12. Літак швидше, ніж потяг.

§ 2. Порядок слів в англійському реченні

У англійському реченні кожен член речення, як правило, має своє певне місце. Так, в простому поширеному розповідному реченні на першому місці стоїть

1) підмет, за ним слід

2) присудок, далі йде

3) доповнення (беспредложное, пряме, предложное) і потім

4) обставини (образу дії, місця, часу).

Наприклад: 1) I 2) gave 3) my brother 3) a book 4) yesterday.

Exercise 2.9. Build the sentences from the words:

a) Is, best, she, friend, my.

b) Learn, different, students, our, subjects.

c) The, is, Russia, the, in, country, largest, world.

d) In, the, we, city, live, a, flat, in, of, center, the.

e) Reading, is, my, of, best, son's, fond, friend.

§ 3. Основні типи питань, використовувані в англійській мові

1. Загальне питання

Загальне питання відноситься до всього речення в цілому, і відповіддю на нього будуть слова yes або по:

Do you like ice-cream? - Yes, I do.

Can you speak English? - Yes, I can.

Are you a schoolboy? - No, I am not.

Have you bought a text book? - Yes, I have.

Порядок слів у загальному питанні

1) допоміжне дієслово (модальний, дієслово-зв'язка),

2) підмет (іменник або займенник),

3) смислове дієслово (або доповнення).

2. Спеціальний питання

Спеціальний питання відноситься до якого-небудь члена речення або їх групі і вимагає конкретної відповіді:

What is your name? - My name is Peter.

Where do you live? - I live in Rostov.

Порядок слів у спеціальному питанні

1) питальне слово (what, where, who, when, how і т.д.),

2) допоміжне дієслово (модальний, дієслово-зв'язка),

3) підмет,

4) смислове дієслово,

5) доповнення,

6) обставини (місця, часу, способу дії тощо).

У спеціальних питаннях, звернених до підлягає у Present і Past Indefinite, не вживається допоміжне дієслово do (did) і зберігається прямий порядок слів:

Who wants to go to the cinema? Who lives in this house?

3. Альтернативний питання

Альтернативний питання передбачає вибір з двох можливостей:

Do you like coffee or tea? - Ви любите каву або чай?

Альтернативний питання починається як загальне питання, потім слід розділовий сполучник or і друга частина питання.

4. Розділовий питання (Tail Question)

Розділовий питання складається з двох частин. Перша частина - це оповідний пропозиція (стверджувальне або негативне), друга, відокремлена комою від першої - короткий питання (tail - «хвостик»):

You are a pupil, aren't you? - Ви учень, чи не так?

Якщо в оповідної частини розділового питання міститься твердження, то в другій - заперечення. Якщо в оповідної частини - заперечення, то в другій частині, як правило, - твердження:

You are a student, aren't you?

You don't go to school every day, do you?

Exercise 2.10. Read and translate into English:

1. She is a student.

- Is she a student?

- Yes, she is. / No, she isn't.

2. He speaks English well.

- Does he speak English well?

- Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.

3. They have many books.

- Have they many books?

- Yes, they have. / No, they haven't.

4. The weather was fine yesterday.

- Was the weather fine yesterday?

- Yes, it was. / No, it wasn't.

5. We saw a new film yesterday.

- Did we see a new film yesterday?

- Yes, we did. / No, we didn't.

6. You can read well.

- Can you read well?

- Yes, you can. / No, you can't.

7. There will be five lessons tomorrow.

- Will there be five lessons tomorrow?

-Yes, there will. / No, there will not (won't).

Exercise 2.11. Put the questions to the following sentences:

1. загальні

2. спеціальні

3. розділові

1. There is a book on the table. 2. He must work hard today. 3. We are leaving for Moscow next week. 4. We were reading the whole evening. 5. They don't go to work on Sunday. 6. It is not cold today. 7. Ann has already begun to read a new book. 8. We learn English at school. 9. They will show you how to get there. 10. They finished the translation before the end of the lesson. 11. I didn't feel well that evening. 12. It wasn't difficult to do this task.

Exercise 2.12. Read and translate the sentences:.

1. Our family lives in a three-room flat.

- Does your family live in a three-room flat or in a house?

- It lives in a three-room flat.

2. They went to the same school.

- Did they go to the same school or to different schools?

- They went to the same school.

3. He will read this book tomorrow.

- Will he read this text tomorrow or next week?

- He will read it tomorrow.

4. They are playing chess now.

- Are they playing chess or cards now?

- They are playing chess.

5. Our teacher has told us to write.

- Has our teacher told us to write or to read?

- He has told us to write.

Exercise 2.13. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Вам подобається більше англійську мову або французьку?

2. Він живе в Ростові або в області?

3. Вона його молодша або старша сестра?

4. Студенти вже здали іспити чи ні?

5. Петрови поїдуть влітку на південь чи на північ?

6. Ваш друг навчається в академії або в університеті?

7. Він знає її краще чи ви?

Exercise 2.14. Write down alternative questions to the following sentences:

1. Our teacher knows several foreign languages. 2. He has graduated from our University last year. 3. We shall go to Samara next week. 4. They are working in our garden. 5. I have just read this book. 6. I took this book from my friend. 7. He likes reading books. 8. She has many relatives abroad. 9. They were in many countries. 10. Russia is the largest country in the world.

UNIT 3

MY ACADEMY

I. Голосні звуки [а:], [Ù], дифтонги [e е], [ei].

II. Text A: «My Academy»,

Text В: «Moscow Slate University».

III. § 1. Безособові і невизначено-особисті пропозиції.

§ 2. Невизначені займенники some, any, негативне займенник по та їх похідні.

Голосний звук [а:]

При проголошенні англійської голосного [а:] рот відкритий майже як для російського звуку, але мова відсувається далі назад і донизу і лежить плоско. Кінчик мови відтягнуть від нижніх зубів. Губи не розтягнуті й не висунуті вперед.

Голосний звук [Ù]

При проголошенні короткого голосного [Ù], губи трошки розтягнуті, мова відсунутий тому, дещо глибше, ніж для російського звуку [а]. Кінчик мови знаходиться у нижніх зубів, нагадує російська звук [а] в словах очерет, сади, вали.

Дифтонг [e е]. Ядро звуку - голосний схожий на російський звук у слові це. Ковзання відбувається в напрямку нейтрального гласного з відтінком звуку.

Дифтонг [ei]. Дифтонг, ядром якого є гласний, а ковзання відбувається в напрямку голосного. Промовляючи дифтонг необхідно стежити за тим, щоб ядро не було таким широким, як російська голосний [е], а другий елемент не перетворювався на російський звук [й].

Exercise A

care - dare - rare

date - may - pay

car - far - bar

fare - fair - hair

lay - hay - Ray

half - calf - bath


Exercise D

part - park - fart

Exercise З

us - bus

cart - barter - shark

tape - hate - bate

tub - mud

spark - bath - mark

mate - plate - Kate

must - sum

park - raft - plant

late - fate - rate

humble - tumble

Exercise У

brave - maple - main

sun - hunt

mare - air - pair

pain - name - day

trust - last

Text A: «ANN'S ACADEMY»

Hello again! Now let me tell you about my Polytechnical Academy. I am really glad that I study here. It is one of the finest country's higher educational institutions. Many famous people have graduated from my Academy, and not only engineers or scientists, but many outstanding writers, actors, showmen and politicians. Studying at our Academy gives a solid background in all spheres of knowledge and prepares for practical work.

Our Academy is quite large and old. It was founded in the 19 th century by the famous Russian inventor Vladimir Komarov. First, it was a small department of a large University, but later it was rearranged into an independent institution. Nowadays it is a large school where more than 5,000 students are currently enrolled. About 3,000 are full-time students, like me, and the rest are part time-students. There are also about 150 graduate students. They conduct independent research work and have pedagogical practice.

The course of study at my academy lasts five years. There are many faculties in my academy. Here are some of them: the faculty of industrial automation and robotics, the faculty of plastics, the faculty of machine tools and the faculty of metalworking.

Our academy is large and we have several buildings. One of the buildings is for lectures and seminars only. There are many large halls there so that students of 3-4 groups together can fit in there. And that is more than 100 people. The acoustics [е'ku: stiks] in such large halls is very good but sometimes it is very noisy when students chat during the lecture.

We have two laboratory buildings which are equipped with up-to-date equipment and there students can carry on lab works and conduct various experiments. Many students from my group do their own research work.

There are several cafes at the academy. My favourite one is situated in a separate one-storeyed building and people say that this is the oldest canteen or student's cafe. The food there is tasty and very affordable.

There are also several dormitories or hostel buildings where students from other cities live. But you know already that I don't live in a dormitory - I rent an apartment.

Vocabulary:

currently - в даний час

to be enrolled - числитися в списках студентів

full-time students - студенти денного відділення

part time-students - студенти вечірнього відділення

to conduct - проводити

course of study - курс навчання

industrial automation - промислова автоматика

robotics - робототехніка

plastics - пластмаси

machine-tools - верстати

metalworking - металообробка

figure [f'igе] - фігура, цифра

noisy - галасливий

to chat - розмовляти, базікати

to be equipped with - бути обладнаним

up-to-date equipment - сучасне обладнання

carry on - проводити

research work - дослідна робота

one-storeyed - одноповерхова

tasty ['teisti] - смачний

affordable - доступна (to afford - дозволяти)

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY

classroom - клас, аудиторія

lecture hall - лекційний зал

laboratory - лабораторія

gym (gymnasium) - спортзал

semester (term) - семестр

school year - навчальний рік

course of studies - курс навчання

academy - академія

university - університет

institute - інститут

faculty, college, department - факультет (ex. College of physics - факультет фізики)

department, chair of ... - Кафедра

head of the department, chief of the department, chair (man, woman) - зав. кафедрою

substitute - заступник

teaching instructor (TI) - викладач

professor - професор

dean - декан

Rector - ректор

teaching staff, faculty members - викладацький склад

full-time student - студент (ка) денного відділення

part-time student - студент (ка) «Вечернік»

student of distant education - студент (ка) «заочник»

student of preparatory courses - слухач підготовчих курсах, «подкурснік» undergraduate student - студент 1-4 (5) курсів

graduate student - студент 5-6 курсів (магістрант, аспірант)

Exercise 3.1. Tell about:

a) your secondary school (college)

b) the faculty of your university

c) your favourite teacher at school.

Exercise 3.2. Do you know?

1) When was your University or Academy established?

2) Who was the first Rector?

3) Were there any famous a) scientists, engineers b) politicians c) artists among the graduates of your Institute?

4) How many people are currently enrolled?

5) What is the most popular faculty in your Academy?

Exercise 3.3. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements:

a) Larger schools are better than smaller ones.

b) It is impossible to enter the university if you haven't attended preparatory courses.

c) The best professors are the oldest ones.

d) It is better to live in a dormitory or student hostel than to rent an apartment.

e) Professors always know more than students and teaching instructors.

Text B: «MOSCOW STATE UNIVERSITY»

Moscow State University is the oldest, autonomous, self-governing and state-supported institution of higher learning, founded in 1755 by the scientist Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. Located in Moscow, the university is composed of faculties of biology, chemistry, computational mathematics and cybernetics, economics, foreign languages, fundamental medicine, geography, geology, history, journalism, law, mechanics and mathematics, physics, psychology, sociology, and soil sciences, as well as an institute of Asian and African Studies. Several museums, colleges, and a number of institutes are affiliated with Moscow University, and a preparatory faculty teaches Russian language and other subjects to foreign students.

Except for the science faculties and some of the arts faculties - which are situated in south-western Moscow - the remainder of the faculties are located in the older university buildings in the centre of the city. A diploma in a given field of study is awarded after five or five and a half years of study. After three additional years and the completion of a thesis, the kandidat nauk degree is awarded. The highest degree, the Doctor of Sciences, may be attained upon completion of a thesis based on independent research.

GRAMMAR

А) Безособові і невизначено-особисті пропозиції.

Англійські пропозиції відрізняються від росіян тим, що в них завжди є підмет і присудок. Тому в безособових реченнях, коли немає підмета, використовується в якості формального підлягає займенник it.

It is cold today. Сьогодні холодно.

Як бачимо, безособові пропозиції такого типу складаються з займенники it, яке не перекладається, дієслова-зв'язки в потрібному за змістом часу та іменний частини присудка, вираженого найчастіше ім'ям прикметником. Іменна частина може бути також виражена іменником або ім'ям числівником.

It's nice to meet you. Приємно познайомитися.

It is nine o'clock now. Зараз дев'ять годин.

Дуже часто безособові пропозиції описують явище природи, стан погоди, позначають час, відстань.

Питальні і негативна форми безособових пропозицій утворюються за тими ж правилами, що й питальні і негативні форми пропозицій з іменним складеним присудком.

Is it cold? - Холодно?

Wasn't it interesting? - Хіба це не було цікаво?

Частка not ставиться після першого допоміжного дієслова.

Exercise 3.4. Переведіть на англійську мову.

1. Сьогодні холодно. 2. Йде сніг цілий день. 3. Зараз ранок. 4. Було приємно познайомитися з вашим другом. 5. Пізно. Пора спати. 6. Хіба це не смішно? 7. Зараз вже 10 години ранку. 8. На вулиці холодно? 9. Зараз рання весна, але вже тепло. 10. Це далеко звідси?

В) Невизначені займенники some. any. негативне займенник по та їх похідні.

Вживання some і any, а також їх похідних визначається типом пропозиції.

У позитивному реченні вживаються, як правило, займенник some і його похідні:

Give me something to read, please. I met him somewhere before.

У питальних і негативних пропозиціях зазвичай використовуються займенник any і його похідні:

Have you seen him anywhere? Is there anything I can do for you?

У негативних пропозиціях використовується або займенник any і його похідні:

I cannot find this book anywhere.

який негативний займенник по

There is nobody in that room. There isn't anybody in that room.

Відмінності між займенниками any і some - в ступені невизначеності, тому іноді займенник any можна зустріти і в стверджувальних реченнях:

You can find this book anywhere. - Цю книгу ви можете знайти де завгодно.

Exercise 3.5. Make 16 pronouns and translate them:

Зразок: some + body = somebody - хтось, хто-небудь

some body

any one

no thing

every where

Exercise 3.6. Insert somebody, anybody, nobody or everybody:

l. The question was so difficult that ... could answer it. 2 .... left his bag in our classroom yesterday. 3. Has ... in this group got a dictionary? 4. I am afraid there is ... in the office now. It is too late. 5 .... knows that water is necessary for plants. 6. Is there ... here who knows English? 7. You must find ... who can help you. 6 .... knew anything about our home task. 9 .... can answer this question. It is very easy. 10. There is ... in the next room. I don't know him. 11. Please tell us the story, ... knows it. 12. Is there ... in my group who lives in the hostel? 13. Has ... here got a red pencil?

Exercise 3.7. Translate into English:

1. Тут є хто-небудь? 2. У саду нікого немає. 3. У нашій кімнаті є хто-небудь? 4. У класі є хтось. 5. Там нікого немає. 6. В саду є хто-небудь? 7. На столі є що-небудь? - Ні, там нічого немає. 8. У сумці щось є. 9. У цій книзі є що-небудь цікаве? 10. На стіні є які-небудь картини? - Так, там є декілька. 11. У кабінеті директора є хто-небудь? - Ні, там нікого немає. 12. У нашій бібліотеці є якісь книги англійською мовою. 13. У вашій бібліотеці є які-небудь книги англійською мовою? 14. Мій друг не хоче мені нічого сказати. 15. Я хочу провести літні канікули де-небудь на березі Чорного моря. 16. Якщо ви голодні, пошукайте що-небудь в холодильнику. 17. Розкажіть нам все про вашому подорожі. 18. Ніхто ніде не допоміг йому.

UNIT 4

MY HOME TOWN

I. Голосні звуки [u:], [u].

II. Text A: «Sochi».

Text B: «Rostov-on-Don».

II1. § 1. Займенники little і few і займенникові вираження a little і a few.

§ 2. Оборот there is / there are.

Голосний звук [u:]

При проголошенні довгого голосного звуку [u:] губи напружені і сильно округлені, але набагато менше висунуті вперед, ніж при російською звуці [у]: moon. На листі передається буквосполученням подвійне О, за винятком випадків перед буквою k.

Наприклад: soon - скоро, незабаром, moon - місяць

Виключення: book - книга (короткий і)

Голосний звук [u]

При проголошенні короткого голосного звуку [u] губи помітно округлені, але не висунуті вперед, мова відтягнуть тому, але трохи менше, ніж для і: (u довгого). Звук нагадує ненаголошений російська звук [у] в словах порожній, тупий, виголошений без висунення губ вперед:

hook - гак, look - погляд

Запам'ятайте слова, в яких як виключення вимовляється [u]: put - класти, pull - тягнути, push - штовхати, full - повний

Exercise A

Exercise З

Exercise D

too - tooth - food

boot - fool - foot

soon - spoon - tooth

boot - mood - shook

fool - pool - hook

fool - too - book

cook - boot - loop

foot - cool - mood

pull (тягнути) - pool (басейн)

tool (інструмент) - full (повний)

Exercise У

shook - soon - spoon - moon


took - shook - nook



hook - look - cook



Text A: «SOCHI»

«Big Sochi - the best place on the Earth!»

Hello, everyone! Here is Ann Sokolova again. This time I'll tell you about my lovely hometown - Sochi. I am sure everyone knows where Sochi is. For those who are not really sure I remind that it is situated on the Black Sea coast about 1500 km south from Moscow.

But what makes this city so special? Sochi is called the city of three seasons because there's no winter here. As we usually say, «the golden autumn slowly turns into the early spring.» When golden leaves slowly fall down on the earth the first flowers begin to blossom. Sochi is the only northern subtropical city in Russia. One can bathe in the Black Sea from May till October because the water of the Black Sea is still warm. The water of the Black Sea contains many chemical substances such as iodine, chlorine, bromine, sulphates, carbonates, sodium, potassium, etc. All of them react with your body and make you healthier. There are many mineral water springs in Sochi and its area.

Have you ever heard the name Big Sochi? Sochi is one of the most stretched cities along the sea coast - it is 148 km long! Small towns and cities Adler, Khosta, Kudepsta, Dagomys and Lazarevskoye belong to Big Sochi!

The history of this area goes back to the ancient times. One can call this area «the Cradle of Mankind». People came here from the Asia Minor 400-350 thousand years ago. There are more than 150 historical places of interest in the area. Here the camps and caves of prehistoric people have been found.

The dolmens - massive prehistoric grave structures from the 2nd thousand BC are the features of the Bronze era. The most ancient five-stone dolmens are found in the Sochi area. Travellers of the 19th century called dolmens «the houses of the giants» because each grave stone weighs from 500 to 3000 kg. It is still uncertain what technical developments made ​​it possible to construct such structures.

The rich lands of Caucasus always attracted invaders: Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Genuese, Turks.

In the VI th century BC the Black Sea coast attracted Greek colonists, who have based a number of trade-settlements, such as Dioscuria (modern city of Sukhumi), Pitiunt (Pitsunda), Triglif (Gagra).

Christian religion was brought over from the Byzantynne three centuries earlier than to Russia. In the end of X th - beginning of the XI th centuries AD the first known Christian constructions were built in Loo, Galitsino and Veseloye.

During the XVIII th-XIX th centuries Russia conducted long wars with Turkey for the exit to the Black Sea. In 1829, after the end of Russian-Turkish war, by the peace treaty the Black Sea coast of Caucasus, from the mouth of the Kuban river up to a fort St.Nicholas (to the south of modern city Poti), has departed to Russia.

Symbol of the victory of the Russian weapon in the war of 1829 is the monument near modern hotel «Leningrad» - «Anchor and Cannon».

The end of Russian-Turkish war has not solved all the problems of strengthening of Russia on the Black Sea coast. The Black Sea coastal line consisting of 17 forts was created with this purpose.

On April 21st, 1838 a small wooden fortress was established in the Sochi river area to protect this land from local tribes. It was named Alexandria in honour of emperess Alexandra. It was renamed one year later, on May 18, 1839 and became Navaginskoye. But in 1854, because of the beginning of the Crimean war, the fortress was destroyed by Russian army. Russians left this area. Only 1910 years later, on March 25th, 1864 the new fortress named Dakhovskiy was established on the place of the Navaginskiy fortress.

In 1896 by the decision of the Tsarist government fortress Dakhovskiy was renamed in the settlement of Sochi, after the name of the river Sochi.

In the end of XIX th century the Black Sea coast was intensively occupied by the immigrants from central parts of Russia, Moldova, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, Georgia and Armenians and Greeks from Turkey. The Sochi district becomes multinational area of Russian Empire.

In Soviet times Sochi was a quickly developing port, industrial and resort city on the Black Sea. The fast development of the city and construction of modern houses was due to Joseph Stalin's sympathy to this place. Many streets in the center of Sochi look like the center of Moscow built in 30s and 50s.

Until now the favourite residence of Russian Presidents was Bocharov creek (струмок). Ski resorts of Krasnaya polyana, warm blue waters of Black Sea, luxurious tennis courts create irresistable atmosphere around the place.

I guess, I have taken a lot of your attention already. You know yourself what a popular resort is Sochi nowadays. Just buy the ticket and have your suitcases packed!

Vocabulary:

to remind - нагадувати

to turn into - прeвращаться (у що-небудь)

blossom - цвісти

chemical substances - хімічні речовини

iodine - йод

chlorine - хлор

bromine - бром

sulphate сульфат

carbonates - карбонати

sodium - натрій

potassium - калій

to be stretched - бути витягнутим

events - події, заходи

«The Cradle of Mankind» - «колиска людства»

BC (Before Christ) - до н.е.

Asia Minor - п-ів Мала Азія

camp - табір

cave [keiv] - Печера

Bronze era - бронзовий століття

pre-historic - доісторичний

grave structures - могильники

dolmens - дольмени

features - особливості

to weigh - важити

uncertain - неопреленний

construct - зводити, будувати

attract - залучати

invader - загарбник

trade-settlements - торгові поселення, факторії

Byzantynne - Візантія

AD - (Anno Domini) - нашої ери (н.е.)

to conduct - проводити

exit - вихід

peace treaty ['tri: ti] - мирний договір

mouth of the river - гирло річки

weapon - зброя

anchor - якір

cannon - гармата

purpose - мета

fortress - форт, зміцнення

in honour of emperess Alexandra - на честь імператриці Олександри

to be occupied - бути зайнятим, заселеним

due to - завдяки (кому-небудь, чого-небудь)

luxurious - розкішний

irresistible - чарівний

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

village - село, село

cossack's settlement - козацька станиця

town - невелике місто

suburbs - передмістя

city ​​- велике місто

center of the region - районний центр

capital of the republic - столиця республіки

capital of the federal district - столиця федерального округу

ancient history - давня історія

medieval history - середньовічна історія

Dark Ages - середні століття

Tsarist's Russia - царська Росія

Great October revolution - Велика жовтнева революція

Great Patriotic War - Велика Вітчизняна війна

WWII (World War II) - друга світова війна

soviet times - радянські часи

former USSR - колишній СРСР

c) historical center - історичний центр

cultural center - культурний центр

trade center - торговий центр

transport center - транспортний центр

Exercise 4.1. Translate into English:

1. Моє рідне місто було засновано під час царювання Миколи I.

2. Перше укріплення на місці сучасного Сочі було названо на честь імператриці Олександри.

3. Під час Великої вітчизняної війни німецькі війська двічі захоплювали наше місто.

4. Володимир - один з найдавніших російських міст.

5. М'який клімат і родючі землі завжди привертав загарбників на береги Кубані.

6. Великий російський винахідник Володимир Комаров жив і працював у нашому місті.

7. Сучасний Новоросійськ - це найбільше портове місто на узбережжі Чорного моря.

8. Наше місто є одночасно великим індустріальним та історичним центром регіону.

Exercise 4.2. Answer the following questions:

1. Do you study in your hometown or you just live here while studying?

2. Do you like the city where you study? Why and why not?

3. Do you know the history of your hometown?

4. When was your hometown founded?

5. Do you know any famous people who were born in your hometown?

6. What are the places of interest in your hometown?

7. What is your favourite place in your hometown?

Exercise 4.3. Derive the adjective (прикметник) from the noun (іменник):

history - historical

military -

culture -

science -

industry -

trade -

agriculture -

administration -

politics -

Text B: «ROSTOV-ON-DON»

Rostov-on-Don, the capital of the Southern federal district and Rostov region, is a comparatively young city. Not so long ago Rostovites celebrated its 250 th anniversary. The city was founded in 1749 when a custom-house on the Temernik river was set up. According to a legend, Tsar Peter the First tried the water from a spring when he stopped on the right bank of the Don on his way to Azov. He was so pleased with the taste of water that he called the spring «Bogaty istochnik» - Rich spring. The name of the spring gave the name to the street. The water is being bottled now and sold all over the country.

But only years later, after the death of Tsar Peter I, under the rule of Katherine II a fortress was built here. The main purpose of the fortress was to support the customs effectively operating in this trade and transport active region. The fortress was named after Dimitry Rostovsky, the Archbishop of Rostov the Great. The town grew later on, round the walls of the fortress and it was also called «Rostov which lies on the river Don».

Rostov is situated on the right bank of the river Don, not far from the Sea of Azov. Due to its geographical position the city grew rapidly.

After the hard years of the Civil War Rostovites restored the ruined economy of the region.

During the World War II Rostov was occupied by the Germans twice. They destroyed almost all the city. Nowadays Rostov is the largest city in the South of the country. It's a big sea and river port and an important railway junction. Rostov is called «The Gateway to the Caucasus».

The main branch of industry is agricultural machine building. «Rostselmash» is a giant machine building plant producing a lot of agricultural machines. Factories of Rostov produce champagne, cigarettes, musical instruments which are well-known abroad. There is also a big helicopter plant in Rostov.

Rostov is the cultural centre of the Rostov region. There are many educational establishments in Rostov including the Rostov State University founded in Warsaw in 1815. There are six theatres in Rostov (Gorky Drama Theatre, Philharmonic, Puppet Theatre, Theatre of Musical Comedy, Theatre of Young Spectators and Musical Theatre).

There are two museums (Local Lore Museum, Fine Arts Museum), eight stadiums, several Palaces of Culture, a lot of cinemas, libraries, parks and gardens.

Rostov is famous for many prominent people who lived here.

The city is very green. There are a lot of parks in the city. In summer you can see a lot of people on the beach on the left bank of the Don river.

General understanding:

1. What is the status of Rostov-on-Don now?

2. Is Rostov-on-Don an old city?

3. What role did Peter the Great play in the history of Rostov-on-Don?

4. Why did Peter the Great call the spring «rich».

5. When was the first fortress built? How was it called?

GRAMMAR

§ 1. Займенники little і few і займенникові вираження a little і a few.

Займенник little і местоименное вираз a little вживаються з неісчісляемимі іменниками, займенник few і местоименное вираз a few - з обчислюваними:

Give me a little water, please. There is little milk in the bottle.

I have a few friends in Minsk I've got only few pencils in the box.

Займенники few і little означають «мало», а займенникові вираження a few і a little - «трохи».

Much (багато) вживається з неісчісляемимі іменниками, many (багато) - з обчислюваними.

Exercise 4.4. Insert much, many, little, a little, few, a few:

1. I'd like to say ... words about my travelling. 2. She gave him ... water to wash his hands and face. 3. He had ... English books at home, so he had to go to the library. 4. After the lesson everybody felt ... tired. 5. Let's stay here ... longer. I like it here. 6. There were ... new words in the text and Peter spent ... time learning them. 7. There was ... sugar in the bowl, and we had to put ... sugar there. 8. My mother knows German ... and she can help you with the translation of this text. 10. When we walked ... farther down the road we met another group of pupils. 11. Have you got ... time before the lesson?

Exercise 4.5. Translate into English:

Багато зошитів, багато молока, багато води, багато днів, багато газет, багато крейди, багато снігу, багато років, багато картин, багато музики, багато цукру, багато чаю, багато лимонів, багато м'яса, багато кімнат, багато вчителів, багато роботи , багато повітря, багато птахів, багато машин.

Exercise 4.6. Insert much or many:

1. Please don't ask me ... questions. 2. How ... money have you got? 3.1 never eat ... bread with soup. 4. Why did you eat so ... ice-cream? 5. She wrote us ... letters from the country. 6 .... of these students don't like to look up words in the dictionary. 7 .... in this work was too difficult for me. 8. He spent ... time writing his composition in Literature. 9. There were ... plates on the table. 10. Thank you very ... ! 11 .... of my friends are preparing for their entrance examinations now. 12. I don't like ... sugar in my tea.

Exercise 4.7. Translate into English:

1. У склянці є трохи молока. 2. У зошиті залишилося мало чистих сторінок. 3. У тебе багато кави? - Ні, дуже мало. 4. Мало хто з англійців говорять по-російськи. 5. У них тут дуже мало друзів. 6. У нього дуже мало часу для читання. 7. У Петра багато російських книжок і мало англійських книг. 8. У мене є трохи часу ввечері, щоб закінчити цю роботу. 9. Я проводжу багато часу в бібліотеці, тому що я готуюся до іспитів.

§ 2. Оборот there is / there are.

Оборот there is / there are служить для вираження наявності (відсутності) будь-якого предмета в певному місці або в певний час. Форми минулого і майбутнього часу: there was, there were і there will be.

There are some pictures on the wall. На стіні кілька картин.

There was nobody in the room. У кімнаті нікого не було.

Вибір форми дієслова to be залежить від числа іменника, наступного відразу за ним:

There is a chair and two armchairs in the room.

There are two armchairs and a chair in the room. Питальні речення з обігом there is / there are будуються таким чином

Загальне питання: Is there anything in the bag? Will there be lessons tomorrow?

Спеціальний питання: What is there in the bag?

Розділовий питання. There are some pupils in the classroom, aren't there?

Exercise 4.8. Insert to be in the right form:

1.There ... a telegram on the table. 2 .... there any telegrams from Moscow? Yes, there ... some. 3 .... there ... a flight for Moscow tomorrow? Yes, there .... 4. There ... much snow last winter. 5.There ... a lot of stars and planets in space. 6 .... there ... a lift in your future house? Yes, there ....... 7. Some years ago there ... many old houses in our street. 8 .... there any lectures yesterday? No, there ... 9 .... there a lamp over the table? Yes, there .... 10 .... there any interesting stories in this book? 11 .... there a test last lesson? No, there .... 12. Soon there ...... a new film on.

Exercise 4.9. Translate the following sentences and put general questions to them:

1. There are some new pupils in our group. 2. There is no book on the table. 3. There were many old houses in our street. 4. There are 4 seasons in a year. 5. There will be a conference next week. 6. There are many large cities in our country. 7. There was nobody in the room. 8. There are 7 days in a week. 9. There is something on the shelf. 10. There are many places of interest in London. 11. There are many beautiful flowers in our garden. 12. There was much work last week.

Exercise 4.10. Rewrite the following sentences in Past Indefinite and Future Indefinite, translate them into Russian:

1. There is much snow in winter. 2. There are 4 theatres in our city. 3. There is no lift in our house. 4. There are many new books in our library. 5. There is little milk in the bottle. 6. There are 3 rooms in our flat. 7. There is a map on the wall.

UNIT 5

RUSSIA IS MY HOMELAND

I. Голосні звуки [o:], [o], дифтонг [еu].

II. Text A: «The Russian Federation», Text B: «Moscow».

III. § 1. Часи англійського дієслова,

§ 2. Правильні і неправильні дієслова.

Голосний звук [o:] - довгий голосний. Для того, щоб правильно вимовити звук, слід надати органам промови положення, як при вимові звуку [а:], потім значно округлити губи і кілька висунути їх уперед.

Голосний звук [o]. Для того, щоб вимовити, слід виходити з положення органів мови при вимові звуку [а:], потім злегка округлити губи і вимовити короткий звук [е].

Дифтонг [еu]. Звук являє собою щось середнє між російськими звуками [о] і [е]. Губи при проголошенні початку цього дифтонга злегка розтягнуті і округлені. Ковзання відбувається в напрямку голосного [u].

Exercise A

more - score - tore

floor - for - form

fork - pork - sport

dawn - hawk - because

Exercise З

tone - note - smoke

cone - loan - moan

code - hope - cope

lobe - mould - gold

boat - soap - coat

Exercise У

not - top - hot

dot - mop - mob


Text A: «THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION»

The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about 1 / 6 of the Earth surface. The country is situated in Eastern Europe, Northern and Central Asia. Its total area is over 17 million square km.

Our land is washed by 12 seas, most of which are the seas of three oceans: the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific. In the south and in the west the country borders on fourteen countries. It also has a sea-border with the USA.

There is hardly a country in the world where such a great variety of flora and fauna can be found as in our land. Our country has numerous forests, plains and steppes, taiga and tundra, highlands and deserts. The highest mountains in our land are the Altai, the Urals and the Caucasus. There are over two thousand rivers in the Russian Federation. The longest of them are the Volga, the Ob, the Yenisei, the Lena and the Amur. Our land is also rich in various lakes with the deepest lake in the world, the Baikal, included.

On the Russian territory there are 11 time zones. The climate conditions are rather different: from arctic and moderate to continental and subtropical. Our country is one of the richest in natural resources countries in the world: oil, natural gas, coal, different ores, ferrous and non-ferrous metals and other minerals.

The Russian Federation is a multinational state. It comprises many national districts, several autonomous republics and regions. The population of the country is about 140 million people.

Moscow is the capital of our Homeland. It is the largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial center of the country and one of the most beautiful cities on the globe. Russian is the official language of the state. The national symbols of the Russian Federation are a white-blue-red banner and a double-headed eagle.

The Russian Federation is a constitutional republic headed by the President. The country government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The President controls only the executive branch - the government, but not the Supreme Court and Federal Assembly.

The legislative power belongs to the Federal Assembly comprising two chambers: the Council of Federation (upper Chamber) and the State Duma (lower Chamber). Each chamber is headed by the Speaker. The executive power belongs to the government (the Cabinet of Ministers) headed by the Prime Minister. The judicial power belongs to the system of Courts comprising the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and federal courts.

Our country has a multiparty system. The largest and most influential political parties are the «Unity», the Communist party, the «Fatherland-All Russia», «The Union of the Right Forces», «The Apple», Liberal-Democratic and some others.

The foreign policy of the Russian Federation is that of international cooperation, peace and friendship with all nations irrespective of their political and social systems.

Vocabulary:

to occupy - займати

surface - поверхня

total area - загальна площа

to border on - межувати з

numerous - численні

steppes - степу

taiga - тайга

highlands - гірські височини

the Urals - Уральські гори

the Caucasus - Кавказ

climate conditions - кліматичні умови

moderate - помірний

ore-руда

ferrous and non-ferrous metals - чорні та кольорові метали

state - держава

to comprise - включати, охоплювати

banner - прапор, прапор

legislative - законодавчий

executive - виконавча

judicial - судова

Federal Assembly - Федеральних Зборів

the Council of Federation - Рада Федерації

State Duma - Державна Дума

Supreme Court - Верховний суд

influential - впливовий

foreign policy - міжнародна політика

irrespective - незалежно

General understanding:

1. Is Russia the largest country in the world?

2. What oceans wash the borders of the Russian Federation?

3. How many countries have borders with Russia?

4. Are Russian flora and fauna various?

5. What are the highest mountains in Russia?

6. What is Baikal famous for?

7. What is the climate in Russia like?

8. What is the national symbol of Russia?

9. What does the Federal Assembly consist of?

10. Who is the head of each Chamber of the Federal Assembly?

Exercise 5.1. Translate into English:

1. Загальна площа Російської федерації становить більше 17 мільйонів кілометрів.

2. У світі навряд чи є ще одна країна з такою різноманітною флорою і фауною.

3. Озеро Байкал - найглибше озеро на земній кулі і служить предметом гордості росіян.

4. На території Російської федерації існує 11 часових поясів.

5. Росія є конституційною республікою з президентською формою правління.

6. Законодавча влада належить Федеральним Зборам, що складається з двох палат.

7. У Російському парламенті представлені такі партії, як «Єдність», КПРФ, "Отечество-Вся Росія», «Яблуко», СПС, ЛДПР.

8. Законодавча і судова влади прямо не підпорядковуються Президенту.

Exercise 5.2. How well do you know your Homeland?

What is (are):

the biggest Russian lake?

the longest Russian river (in European and Asian parts of the Russian Federation)?

a city with subtropical climate?

cities with arctic climate?

agricultural regions?

old historical cities?

places of recreation and tourism?

Text B: «MOSCOW»

Moscow is the capital and largest city of Russia. It is also the capital of Moscow Oblast, and it stands on the Moskva River. Moscow is the economic, political and cultural centre of Russia. Railways and numerous airlines link the city with all parts of Russia. Navigable waterways, including the Moscow Canal, Moskva River, and Volga-Don Canal, make the port areas of the city directly accessible to shipping from the Baltic, White, Black, and Caspian seas and the Sea of Azov.

Moscow covers an area of about 880 sq.km. Concentric boulevards divide the city into several sections. At the centre of the concentric circles (and semicircles) are the Kremlin, the former governmental seat of Russia, and adjacent Red Square, which form the centre of a radial street pattern. Moscow has a modern underground system famous for its marble-walled stations.

Situated on the north bank of the Moskva River, the Kremlin is the dominant landmark of Moscow. A stone wall, up to 21 m in height and 19 towers, surrounds this triangular complex of former palaces, cathedrals, and other monuments of tsarist times, some of them dating from the Middle Ages. The Great Kremlin Palace, completed in 1849, is the most imposing structure within the Kremlin. Other notable Kremlin palaces are the Granovitaya Palace (1491) and the Terem (1636).

Among many cathedrals, now used mainly as museums, are the Cathedral of the Assumption (Успіння) and the Archangel Cathedral, each with five gilded domes, and the Cathedral of the Annunciation (Благовіщення) (13th-14th century), with nine gilded domes . Another landmark of the Kremlin is the Tower of Ivan the Great, a bell tower 98 m high. On a nearby pedestal is the Tsar's Bell (nearly 200 tons), one of the largest in the world. A recent addition to the Kremlin is the Palace of Congresses, completed in 1961. In this huge modern building were held meetings of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and congresses of the Communist party of the Soviet Union; theatrical and other artistic performances have been held here as well.

St Basil's Cathedral, famous for its unique architecture and coloured domes, stands at one end of Red Square.

One of the best-known sections of Moscow is the Kitaigorod (Chinese City), the ancient commercial quarter lying to the east of the Kremlin. This section is now the site of many government office buildings. Other points of interest in Moscow include the Central Lenin Stadium, comprising about 130 buildings for various sports and the tall Ostankino TV tower, which contains a revolving restaurant and an observation platform.

General understanding:

1. Where is Moscow located?

2. Is Moscow a port city?

3. How is Moscow divided into sections?

4. What is known about Moscow Underground system?

5. What are the places of interest in Moscow?

6. Why is the Kremlin the most important place of interest for tourists?

7. What Russian Orthodox cathedrals are situated inside the Kremlin?

8. What is Palace of Congresses used for at present time?

Exercise 5.3. Where are these places of interest situated?

* Granovitaya Palace

* Terem

* The Red Square

* The Kremlin

* The Great Kremlin Palace

* The Cathedral of the Assumption

* The Archangel Cathedral

* The Cathedral of the Annunciation

* The Tower of Ivan the Great

* The Tsar's Bell

* The Palace of Congresses

* St Basil's Cathedral

* The Central Lenin Stadium

Exercise 5.4. Please, write a short story about your visit to Moscow. The following questions will certainly help you:

1) Have you ever been to Moscow?

2) If yes, when was it?

3) Was it a business trip or a pleasure tour?

4) Did you fly, take a bus or a train to Moscow?

5) What railway station (airport) did you arrive at?

6) What was your first impression of Moscow?

7) What places of interest have you visited?

8) Where did you stay in Moscow?

9) How long did you stayed in Moscow?

10) Did you enjoy your visit to Moscow?

GRAMMAR

§ 1. Пори англійського дієслова.

Таблиця часових форм дієслова

TENSE ЧАС

Indefinite (Simple) Просте

Continuous Тривалий

Perfect Завершене

Present

Справжнє

I write

Я пишу (взагалі, звичайно)

I am writing

Я пишу (зараз)

I have written

Я (вже) написав

Past

Минуле

I wrote

Я (на) писав (вчора)

I was writing

Я писав (в той момент)

I had written

Я написав (вже до того моменту)

Future

Майбутнє

I shall / will write

Я напишу, буду писати (завтра)

I shall / will be writing

Я буду писати (в той момент)

I shall / will have written

Я напишу (вже до того моменту)

Дієслова в формах Indefinite (Simple) описують звичайні, повторювані дії як факт - безвідносно до їх тривалості або до результату дії:

I go to school every day. - Я ходжу до школи щодня. У цьому висловлюванні цікавить не час, витрачений на дорогу, не процес руху, не результат походів, а сам факт: я ходжу до школи, а не на роботу.

Те ж саме відноситься до минулого часу і до майбутнього:

I went to school when I was a boy. - Я ходив у школу, коли був хлопчиком.

I shall go to school when I grow up. - Я буду ходити до школи, коли виросту.

Негативна і питальна форми в Indefinite утворюються за допомогою допоміжних дієслів do, does, did з часткою not, коротка форма: don't, doesn't, didn't. Порядок слів прямий. Питальні речення утворюються, як правило, простою перестановкою підлягає і допоміжного дієслова. Питальні займенники при цьому стоять завжди попереду.

Чи не is a student. - Is he a student?

We do not write much. - Do we write much?

You have a computer. - What do you have?

She does not live in Moscow. - Does she live in Moscow?

He didn't like the film. - Did he like the film?

Особливу групу складають роз'єднувальні питання, які переводяться як затвердження плюс «не так?» Вони застосовні до будь-якого часу. Наприклад:

You speak English, don't you? Ви говорите по-англійськи, чи не так?

Але: Let us speak English, shall we? Давайте говорити по-англійськи, добре?

§ 2. Правильні і неправильні дієслова.

За способом утворення минулого часу дієслова в англійській мові можна розділити на дві групи: правильні і неправильні. У правильних дієслів друга і третя форми (Past Indefinite Tense і Past Participle - простий минулий час і дієприкметник минулого часу) збігаються між собою і утворюються шляхом додавання до основи дієслова закінчення-ed (-d):

to ask - asked, to change - changed, to receive - received, to work-worked

При цьому існує ряд особливостей:

а) якщо дієслово закінчується на-у з попередньої приголосної, то буква у змінюється на i і додається закінчення-ed

to supply - supplied, to apply - applied

якщо дієслово закінчується на-у з попередньою голосною, то буква у не змінюється і додається закінчення -Ed

to stay - stayed to play - played

б) якщо дієслово закінчується на приголосну з попереднім коротким голосним звуком, то згодна на кінці подвоюється:

to stop - stopped

Після дзвінких приголосних і голосних звуків закінчення-ed або-d вимовляється як [d] loved, said, а після глухих приголосних як [t] looked.

Після звуків [d] та [t] на кінці слова закінчення-ed (-d) вимовляється як [id] landed, started.

Неправильні дієслова утворюють другу і третю форми різними способами, без чітких правил. Це найбільш часто вживані дієслова.

Дієслова в формах Continuous описують дію як процес, як тривалість - у співвіднесеності з певним моментом минулого, сьогоденні або майбутньому:

I am reading a book now. - Я читаю книгу (зараз, в даний момент).

I was reading a book yesterday at 5 o'clock. - Я читав книгу вчора о 5 годині.

I will be reading a book tomorrow at 7 o'clock. - Я буду читати книгу завтра о сьомій годині.

Крім цієї функції, дієслова в Present Continuous Tense висловлюють дію, віднесене в найближче майбутнє:

We are leaving for Moscow in July. - Ми їдемо в Москву в липні.

Дієслова в формах Perfect висловлюють дію завершене, що призвело до певного результату (або до відсутності результату). Можна сказати, що за допомогою форм Perfect ми підводимо підсумки певного періоду часу, певних дій. Час підведення підсумків - або зараз Present Perfect, або момент у минулому Past Perfect, або - в майбутньому Future Perfect.

I have written the letter. (Present Perfect) - Я (тільки що) написав листа (переді мною лист як результат).

I had written the letter when he came. (Past Perfect) - Я написав листа, коли він прийшов. (2 дії, одне завершилося раніше іншого)

I will have written the letter by 10 o'clock tomorrow. (Future Perfect) - Я напишу листа до 10 години завтpa. (Дія завершиться до певного моменту часу в майбутньому).

Exercise 5.5. Open the brackets:

1. He (know) several foreign languages.

2. I (learn) English at school.

3. Usually the train (leave) at 10 o'clock.

4. Our grandparents (live) now in Moscow.

5. He (visit) them regularly last year.

6. As a rule I (go) to my Academy by bus.

7. She (work) abroad next year.

8. She (not like) poems.

9. Your children usually (ask) many questions.

10. At present he (work) at school.

11. My brother (like) music.

12. What you (do) yesterday?

13. His sister (go) to the seaside next July.

14. Soon we (leave) the school.

15. Who (take) his book yesterday?

Exercise 5.6. Put the verb to write in the appropriate form:

1. We often ... letters to our parents.

2. What ... you ... now?

3. Yesterday they ...... tests from 10 till 12 o'clock.

4. Who ...... this letter tomorrow?

5. I. ..... some letters last week.

6. What ... you ... tomorrow at 10?

7. When I came in she ...... a letter.

8. Do you often ... letters to your parents?

9. I. .. not ... this article now. I. ..... it in some days.

10 .... he ... his report at the moment?

11. What ... she ... in the evening yesterday?

12. As a rule he ... tests well.

Exercise 5.7. Put the verbs in brackets in the right form:

1. Peter and Ann (go) away five minutes ago. 2. I (write) the letter but I (not send) it. 3. He just (go) away. 4. She already (answer) the letter. 5. She (answer) it on Tuesday. 6. I just (tell) you the answer. 7. I (read) that book in my summer holidays. 8. The greengrocer (sell) now all his vegetables. 9. He (sell) all of them half an hour ago. 10. I (not see) him for three years. I (be) glad to see him again some time. 11. What you (do)? I (copy) the text from the text-book now. 12. He (go) to Moscow next week? 13. He (not smoke) for a month. He is trying to give it up. 14. When he (arrive)? - He (arrive) at 2:00. 15. You (switch off) the light before you left the house? 16. I (read) these books when I was at school. I (like) them very much. 17. I can't go out because I (not finish) my work. 18. I already (tell) you the answer yesterday. 19. What you (do) tomorrow in the morning? 20. I (not meet) him last week. 21. I usually (leave) home at seven and (get) here at twelve. 22. Here is your watch. I just (find) it. 23. You (not have) your breakfast yet?

Exercise 5.8. Translate into English. Pay attention to the Tense used:

1. Я ніколи про це не чув. 2. Хлопчикові лише чотири роки, але він вже навчився читати. 3. Ви вже переїхали на нову квартиру? 4. Ви зробили багато помилок в диктанті. 5. Ви коли-небудь бачили цього письменника? 6. У цьому місяці я прочитав дві нові книги. 7. Мій приятель поїхав до Києва тиждень тому і ще не писав мені. 8. Я не бачив свого брата за останній час. 9. Ви читали сьогодні в газеті статтю про наш новий театрі? 10. Ви були коли-небудь в Лондоні? - Ні, я поїду туди в цьому році. 11. Ви вже прочитали цю книгу? - Як вона вам сподобалася? 12. Я хотів подивитися цей фільм минулого тижня, але зміг подивитися його тільки вчора. 13. У цьому році я збираюся вступати в інститут. 14. Ваш син уже закінчив інститут? 15. Його дочка закінчила школу торік.

Exercise 5.9. Translate into English:

1. Він писав листа, коли я прийшов до нього. 2. Він робив свою роботу, поки його брати грали у футбол. 3. Я впав, коли біг за автобусом. 4. Ми робили уроки, коли пішов дощ. 5. Коли вчитель давав урок, нова учениця увійшла в клас. 6. Коли задзвонив телефон, я працював у саду. 7. Я побачив своїх однокласників, коли я йшов по вулиці. 8. Почався дощ, коли ми спостерігали за грою.

Exercise 5.10. Put the verbs in brackets in the right form. Use Past Tenses:

1. When I (arrive) the lecture already (start). 2. Peter (sit) in a dark room with a book. I told him that he (read) in very bad light. 3. Mother (make) a cake when the light (go) out. She had to finish it in the dark. 4. When I arrived Jenny (leave), so we only had time for a few words. 5. John (have) a bath when the phone rang. He (get) out of the bath and (go) to answer it. 6. When we (come) to the airport, the plane already (land). 7. He suddenly (realize) that he (travel) in the wrong direction. 8. You looked very busy when I saw you last night. What you (do)? 9. I (call) Paul at 7.00 but it wasn't necessary because he already (get) up. 10. When I (see) him he (cross) the street. 11. While he (water) the flowers it (begin) to rain. 12. Ann said that she (be) on holiday. I (say) that I (hope) that she (enjoy) herself. 13. When I (look) through your books I (notice) that you (have) a copy of Jack London. 14. She said that she (not like) her present flat and (try) to find another. 15. When Ann (finish) her homework she (turn) on TV.

Exercise 5.11. Define the Tense and translate into English:

1. Вчора о 9 годині вечора я дивився телевізор. 2. Вона сказала, що ще не виконала домашнє Exercise. 3. Коли прийшов мій друг, я ще не закінчив снідати. 4. Коли я зустрів її вперше, вона працювала в школі. 5. Всі студенти виконали Exercise правильно після того, як викладач розповів їм, як його робити. 6. Коли ми вийшли на вулицю, яскраво світило сонце. 7. Мій друг сказав, що його брат вже приїхав. 8. Я читав книгу, коли почув телефонний дзвінок. 9. Після того, як лікар оглянув хворого, він поговорив з його родичами. 10. Коли ми прийшли на зупинку, автобус вже поїхав. 11. Він дивився телевізор, коли прийшов його друг. 12. Листоноша зазвичай приходить о дев'ятій годині ранку. Зараз вже пів на десяту, а він все ще не прийшов. 13. Кожен вечір я дивлюся телевізор. 14. Службовці закінчують роботу о шостій годині вечора. 15. Хіба вона не знала про це? 16. Хіба ви не бачили цей фільм? 17. Вона ще не брала свого маленького сина в театр, але вже водила його в кіно в перший раз кілька днів тому. 18. Він зазвичай дуже уважно слухає вчителя, але зараз він не слухає, у нього болить голова. 19. Я не грав у футбол з минулого року. 20. Маленька дівчинка часто допомагає своїй матері. 21. Автор ще молода людина. Він написав свою першу книгу в 1989 році. 22. Зараз 8 годині ранку і дитина вже прокинувся. Вчора вранці він прокинувся раніше. 23. У школі він грав у футбол.

Exercise 5.12. Put in the appropriate words from the list:

  1. ... I go to the Institute by bus.

  1. I do my morning exercises ...

  2. We shall have invited you ...

  3. Who has seen him ...?

  4. He had worked here ...

  5. ... the plant was producing new machines.

  6. We have ... done our work.

  7. What are you doing ...?

  8. He was going home ...

  9. Will you have read the book ...?

  10. Did you see them ...?

  11. We translated this text ....

  1. before the Institute

  2. by Tuesday

  3. during October

  4. every day

  5. just

  6. last week

  7. now

  8. recently

  9. usually

  10. when we met

  11. when he comes home

  12. already

Exercise 5.13. Change the sentences into questions as in the example. Answer the questions.

Example: He can play chess. - Can't he play chess? - Yes, he can. / No, he can't.

1. They left for Moscow.

2. He has finished his work.

3. She will visit us on Monday.

4. She has many relatives.

5. His father works here.

6. You know his address.

7. We shall go home together.

8. They are at home.

9. I am listening to you.

10. His friends were working in the garden.

11. You have done the task.

UNIT 6

THE UNITED KINGDOM

I. Дифтонги [iе], [ai], приголосний [h].

II. Text A: «United Kingdom», Text B: «History of London».

III. Модальні дієслова та їх замінники.

Дифтонг [iе]

Ядро звуку - голосний [i], а ковзання відбувається в напрямку нейтрального гласного, що має відтінок звуку [/ \].

Дифтонг [ai]

Ядро дифтонга - голосний звук, схожий на російський звук [а] в слові чай. Ковзання відбувається у напрямі звуку [i], проте його освіта повністю не досягається, в результаті чого чується лише початок звуку [i].

Приголосний звук [h].

Цього звуку в російській мові немає. В англійській мові він зустрічається тільки перед голосним і на слух є легким, ледь чутний видих. На відміну від російського [х] англійська [h] утворюється без будь-якої участі мови, тому необхідно стежити за тим, щоб задня спинка язика не піднімалася близько до м'якого піднебіння.

Exercise A

year - hear - ear

here - near - fear

tear - peer - beer

rear - leer - mere

Exercise У

mile - pile - kite

site - side - ride

height - light - fight

might - right - tight

pike - hike - hide

Exercise З

hope - heap - hat

heal - heel - heal

health - height - hear

hood - his - ham

her - here - hate

Exercise D

hit - heat - head

hall - hollow - hammer

hand - happy - hard

harm - hair - hazard

Text A «THE UNITED KINGDOM»

The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, is an island nation and constitutional monarchy in north-western Europe, member of the European Union (EU).

Great Britain is the largest of the British Isles. It comprises, together with numerous smaller islands, England and Scotland, and the principality of Wales. Northern Ireland, also known as Ulster, occupies the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland.

The United Kingdom is bordered to the south by the English Channel, which separates it from continental Europe, to the east by the North Sea, and to the west by the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The only land border is between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The total area of the United Kingdom is 242 sq.km. The capital and largest city is London.

The names «United Kingdom», «Great Britain», and «England» are often used interchangeably. The use of «Great Britain», often shortened to «Britain», to describe the whole kingdom is common and widely accepted, although strictly it does not include Northern Ireland.

However, the use of «England» to mean the «United Kingdom» is not acceptable to members of the other constituent countries, especially the Scots and the Welsh.

England and Wales were united administratively, politically, and legally by 1543. The crowns of England and Scotland were united in 1603, but the two countries remained separate political entities until the 1707 Act of Union, which formed the Kingdom of Great Britain with a single legislature. From 1801, when Great Britain and Ireland were united, until the formal establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922, the kingdom was officially named the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Hong Kong, which has 200,000 population, was returned to China in 1997.

The mainland of the island of Great Britain is 974 km at its longest and 531 km at its widest; however, the highly indented nature of the island's coastline means that nowhere is more than about 120 km from the sea.

The climate of the United Kingdom is mild relative to its latitude, which is the same as that of Labrador in Canada. The mildness is an effect of the warm Gulf Stream. This current brings the prevailing south-west winds that moderate winter temperatures and bring the depressions which have the main day-to-day influence on the weather. The western side of the United Kingdom tends to be warmer than the eastern; the south is warmer than the north. The mean annual temperature is 6 ° C in the far north of Scotland; 11 ° С in the south-west of England. Winter temperatures seldom are below -10 ° C and summer temperatures rarely higher than 32 ° C. The sea winds also bring plenty of moisture; average annual precipitation is more than 1,000 mm.

Rain tends to fall throughout the year, frequently turning to snow in the winter, especially in Scotland, the mountains of Wales, and northern England. The western side of Britain is much wetter than the eastern: average rainfall varies is from 5,000 mm in the western Highlands of Scotland, to less than 500 mm in parts of East Anglia in England.

The population of United Kingdom is more than 56 mln people, but it is one of the world's leading commercial and industrialized nations. In terms of gross national product (GNP) it ranks fifth in the world, with Italy, after the United States, Japan , Germany, and France.

Vocabulary:

island nation - острівна держава

constitutional monarchy - конституційна монархія

European Union - Європейський союз

to comprise - включати

numerous - численні

principality - князівство

North Sea - Північне море

interchangeably - взаимозаменяемо

to accept - приймати, допускати

strictly - суворо, зд. строго кажучи

include - включати

constituent - становить

administratively - адміністративно

entities - зд. суб'єкти

single - зд. єдина

indented - зд. порізана

latitude - широта геогр.

prevailing - переважаючий

moderate - помірний

depressions - зд. циклони

mean - середній

throughout - на всьому протязі

average annual precipitation - середньорічна кількість опадів

in terms of - кажучи (про що-небудь)

GNP (Gross National Product) - валовий національний продукт.

Exercise 6.1. Translate into English.

1. Офіційна назва Великобританії - Сполучене Королівство Великобританії і Північної Ірландії.

2. Сполучене королівство є членом Європейського союзу і конституційною монархією.

3. Північна Ірландія займає північно-східну частину острова Ірландія.

4. Протоку Ла-Манш відокремлює Сполучене Королівство від континентальної Європи.

Exercise 6.2. Use the following phrases and word combinations to retell the text:

1. As I understood from the text ...

2. According to the text ...

3. According to the author ...

4. As it is described in the text ...

5. As it is said in the text ...

6. As the author puts it ...

7. According to the figures (data, information, opinions) from the text ...

Exercise 6.3. Discuss the following statements. Use the following phrases to express your opinion:

1. It seems to me (that) ...

2. I would like to say that ...

3. As I see it ...

4. I think that ...

5. I guess ...

6. I suppose ...

7. I (strongly) believe that ...

8. I am (absolutely) sure that ...

Statement A: The United Kingdom is a small country. It is one of the leading countries now because it had many rich colonies in the past.

Statement B: UK will loose Northern Ireland soon and Wales and Scotland later, like it lost Hong Kong in 1997, because of the differences in languages, culture and history.

Statement C: British people don't travel much because they live not too far from the sea (ocean).

Exercise 6.4. Which events in the modern history of Great Britain had an impact on world science and technology. Choose five the most important and briefly describe them.

Exercise 6.5. What inventions in UK made ​​life more convenient and safer? What inventions have become dangerous for the mankind?

Exercise 6.6. Use the information below to be able to make a report on the following:

1) Land, 2) Climate, 3) Population, 4) Ethnic groups, 5) Economy.

Table: Modern history of Great Britain

1914

World War I begins.

1918

World War I ends.

1919

First regular London-Paris air service instituted.

1926

John Logie Baird demonstrates television system.

1927

British Broadcasting Corporation chartered.

1928

Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.

1936

First regular television broadcasts from Alexandra Palace.

1947

Independence for India and Pakistan. Nationalization of coal mines and railways.

1949

Foundation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

1952

Britain explodes atomic bomb in Australia.

1955

Irish Republican Army begins terrorist campaign.

1960

Independence for Cyprus and Nigeria. «The Beatles» form.

1969

Oil discovered off Scottish coast.

1980

North Sea oil makes Britain self-sufficient in certain petroleum products.

1986

Trident ballistic missile system ordered from US.


LAND

Area

241,752 sq km

Highest Point

Ben Nevis

1,343 m above sea level

Lowest Point

Holme Fen 3 m below sea level

CLIMATE

Average Temperatures

London

January 4 ° C

July 18 ° C

Edinburgh

January 3 ° C

July 15 ° C

Average Annual Precipitation

London 590 mm

Edinburgh 680 mm

POPULATION

Population

58,395,000 (1994 estimate)

Population Density

242 persons / sq km (1994 estimate)

Urban / Rural population

92% Urban

8% Rural

Largest Cities

London (Greater) 6,933,000

Birmingham 1,017,000

Leeds 724,500

Glasgow 681,000

Ethnic Groups

94,5% English, Scottish, Welsh, or Irish

5,5% Other

Languages

Official Language

English

Other Languages

Welsh, Scots-Gaelic, other minority languages

Religions

54% Anglicanism

13% Roman Catholicism

33% Other

including other Protestant denominations, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, and Sikhism


ECONOMY

Gross Domestic Product

US $ 1,023,900,000,000 (1994)

Chief Economic Products

Agriculture

Wheat, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, oilseed rape, livestock, animal products.

Fishing

Mackerel, herring, cod, plaice

Mining

Coal, limestone, petroleum and natural gas.

Manufacturing

Machinery and transport equipment, food products, chemical products, minerals and metal products.

Employment Statistics

58% Trade and Services

23% Manufacturing and Industry

16% Business and Finance

2% Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

1% Military and Defense

Major Exports

Industrial and electrical machinery, automatic data processing equipment, road vehicles, petroleum.

Major Imports

Road vehicles, industrial and electrical machinery, automatic data processing equipment, petroleum, paper and paperboard, textiles, food.

Major Trading Partners

Germany, the United States, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Japan


Text B: "HISTORY OF LONDON"


The Romans were the first to settle and occupy the Celtic fortress of Londinium. Construction of a bridge in 100 AD made ​​London an important junction: it soon became a busy commercial and administrative settlement, and in the 2nd century AD a wall was built round the city.

The Roman Empire fell in the 5th century. London have maintained its trading activity. In the 9th century Danish invaders destroyed much of the city. They were followed by the Saxons led by King Alfred the Great, who entered the city in 886. The Danes remained a powerful force in England, however, and it was not until the reign of Edward the Confessor, which began in 1042, that civic stability was re-established, to be cemented by the Norman Conquest in 1066.

William the Conqueror centred his power at the Tower of London, and his White Tower is still the heart of this impressive monument.

The City soon united its economic power with political independence. Late in the 12th century it elected its own Lord Mayor. From 1351 it elected its own council, and by the end of the 14th century the reigning sovereign could not enter the City without permission.

In the reign of Elizabeth I had the arts a renaissance with such great dramatists as Shakespeare, Marlowe, and Ben Jonson.

In 1665, London had been devastated first by the Great Plague, and then by the Fire of London, which destroyed most of the city the following year. During the reconstruction of the city, following the original street pattern, the architect Sir Christopher Wren was given responsibility for the design of a number of State-funded buildings, including St. Paul's Cathedral.

The western part of London was developed under the Hanoverian Kings: great squares were laid out such as those of Grosvenor, Cavendish, Berkeley, and Hanover, and more bridges were built across the river. Public services were improved, such as the water supply and sewerage systems, and the streets were paved.

In the 19th century London's population began to rise still more rapidly: it increased sixfold over the century as a whole, thanks to influx from all over the British Isles, from Britain's colonies, and from continental Europe. The Industrial Revolution was creating huge numbers of jobs, but never enough to satisfy the hopes of all the poor people who came to the capital. The novels of Charles Dickens tell us about the social problems of that period.

The First World War had little effect on London, but the Depression that followed in the late 1920s and early 1930s hit the whole country, including the capital. There were hunger marches and riots. London was to pay far more dearly during World War II. The intensive bombing of London (The Blitz) in 1940-1941 took the lives of 10,000 people and left 17,000 injured. Countless historic buildings were damaged, including the Houses of Parliament.

After the war London was to re-emerge as a radically different city. The docks had been so severely damaged that reconstruction, a very expensive process, was not reasonable. By the end of the 1950s most of the war damage had been repaired. New skyscrapers were built, outdoing each other in height and spectacular design. The 30-storey Post Office Tower was built in 1965. It is 189 m high. Other significant post-war developments include the 183 m National Westminster Bank Building (1979); and Britain's highest building, the 244 m Canary Wharf Tower on the Docklands site, near to a new City airport.

General understanding:

1) What was the original name of London? Why was it so important for Romans?

2) Who was King Alfred the Great? When did he enter the city?

3) What is still the reminder of William the Conqueror?

4) How was Britain governed in 12th-14th centuries?

5) How did plague influence the history of London?

6) Who was in charge of the reconstruction of the city? Why did it need reconstruction?

7) Why did the population of London grow in the 19 th century?

8) How did the First World War affect the history of London? What about the WWII?

9) How did London change after the WWII?

10) What are the names of skyscraper buildings in London?


GRAMMAR


Модальні дієслова та їх еквіваленти.

Модальні дієслова показують ставлення мовця до дії, вираженої інфінітивом. Наприклад, порівняйте:

You can speak English. Ви можете (умієте) говорити по-англійськи.

You must speak English. Ви повинні говорити по-англійськи.

You may speak English. Ви можете говорити по-англійськи. (Вас зрозуміють.)

Як бачимо, в одному і тому ж реченні зміна модального дієслова змінює зміст усього речення, тобто змінюється ставлення до дії, вираженої інфінітивом.

Модальні дієслова не мають форм у всіх часах, для цього вживаються їх еквіваленти (замінники).

Питальні і негативні пропозиції з модальними дієсловами будуються без допоміжних дієслів: Can you help me? - Yes, I can. - No, I can't. Ви можете допомогти мені? - Так. - Ні.

До основних модальним відносяться дієслова:

can - могти, бути в стані, could - минулий час

передбачає наявність фізичної, розумової та інших можливостей, що дозволяють зробити що-небудь:

I can swim. - Я можу (я вмію) плавати.

I could translate this text .- (Я міг, був у стані) перевести цей текст.

У майбутньому у дієслова can є замінник - конструкція to be able to (бути в змозі що-небудь зробити): I shall be able to help you when I am free. - Я зможу допомогти тобі, коли звільнюся.

may - мати можливість, отримати дозвіл (робити що-небудь),

might - минулий час

May I help you? - Можна вам допомогти? - Yes, you may. - Так, можна.

У майбутньому часі у модального дієслова may є замінник - конструкція to be allowed to (Отримати дозвіл зробити що-небудь).

Чи не will be allowed to take the book. Йому дозволять взяти книгу.

must - повинен, зобов'язаний.

You must write it down now. - Ви повинні написати це зараз.

Замінниками дієслова must є дієслова to have to і to be to, які мають деякі додаткові відтінками значення. Дієслово to have to означає повинність, викликане обставинами, вимушену необхідність, у той час як дієслово to be to - повинність, пов'язане з розкладом, планом або заздалегідь зробленої домовленістю.

She had to stay at home. - Вона змушена була (їй довелося) залишитися вдома.

The train was to arrive at 8 in the evening. - Поїзд повинен був прибути о 8 вечора. (За розкладом).

Після модальних дієслів і деяких їхніх еквівалентів інфінітив вживається без частки to.

Замінниками модального дієслова must є також модальні дієслова ought to, should значенні ради, рекомендації, докору) і shall (запитується дозвіл на здійснення дії).

You should enter the Institute. Вам слід вступити до інституту (рекомендація, рада),

У поєднанні з перфектний інфінітивом дієслово should висловлює жаль про невиконане дії і перекладається «слід було б».

You should have helped them. Вам слід було б допомогти їм. (Але ви не зробили цього).

Shall I read? Мені слід читати?

Модальне дієслово would може мати такі

значення:

1) Чемна прохання. Would you help me? He допоможете ви мені?

2) Повторюваність дії в минулому. Чи не would often help me. Він, бувало, часто допомагав мені.

3) Стійке небажання здійснювати будь-які дії. Чи не wouldn't listen to me. Він ніяк не хотів слухати мене. -

Модальне дієслово need - «треба, треба» вживається, в основному, в негативних пропозиціях. You needn't do it now. Вам не потрібно робити це зараз.

Exercise 6.7. Analyse the use of modal verbs and translate the following sentences:

1. Who can answer my question?

2. Nobody could translate this text.

3. He ought to do this task at once.

4. Must I attend this meeting? - No, you needn't.

5. You should have shown your notes to the teacher.

6. I asked him, but he wouldn't listen to me.

7. They should visit her, she is in the hospital.

8. Last summer we would often go to the country.

9. Your son can do this work himself.

10. Would you tell me the way to the station?

11. Your friend might have informed us.

12. May I leave for a while? - Yes, you may.

13. She should be more attentive at the lessons.

14. You needn't come so early.

Exercise 6.8. Insert necessary modal verbs:

1. I. .. not go to the theatre with them last night, I. .. revise the grammar rules and the words for the test. 2. My friend lives a long way from his office and ... get up early. 3. All of us ... be in time for classes. 4. When my friend has his English, he ... stay at the office after work. He (not) ... stay at the office on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday and ... get home early. 5 .... you ... work hard to do well in your English? 6. «... we discuss this question now? »« No, we ... We ... do it tomorrow afternoon. »7. I'm glad you ... come. 8. «... you ... come and have dinner with us tomorrow? »« I'd love to. »9. «Please send them this article.» «Oh, ... I do it now? »

Exercise 6.9. Translate into English using modal verbs:

1. Ми обов'язково повинні писати диктант сьогодні? - Так, завтра ми будемо вчити нові слова. 2. Вчора мені довелося відповісти на всі ці листи. 3. Віктора теж запросити на обід? - Так, зробіть це, будь ласка. 4. Вам довелося залишитися вдома, бо була погана погода? 5. Ви обов'язково повинні прийти і подивитися нашу нову квартиру .- З задоволенням. 6. Я радий, що мені не довелося закінчувати цю роботу вчора. 7. Я не люблю пізно лягати спати, але іноді мені доводиться. 8. Можна мені піти погуляти зараз? - Ні, не можна. Ти повинен скоро лягати спати. 9. Вам слід відвідати вашого друга. Він вчора не прийшов на урок. 10. Чому ти не прийшла? - Я не могла, я повинна була допомогти мамі по будинку. 11. Вам не потрібно йти до бібліотеки, у нас багато книг будинку, і ви можете взяти будь-яку, яку хочете.

UNIT 7

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


I. Приголосні звуки [q], [¶].

II. Text A: «The USA»,

Text В: «Transport Sustem of the USA».

III. § 1. Узгодження часів у головному і підрядному реченнях.


§ 2. Пасивний стан


Приголосний звук [q]

У російській мові подібного звуку немає. Звук [q] - глухий. При його вимові мову розпластаний і не напружений, кінчик язика утворює вузьку щілину плоску, нещільно притискаючись до нього. У цю щілину з силою проходить струмінь повітря. Кінчик мови не повинен сильно виступати за верхні зуби або занадто щільно притискатися до губ. Зуби мають бути оголені, особливо нижні, так, щоб нижня губа не стосувалася верхніх зубів і не наближалася до них.

Приголосний звук [¶]

При вимові звуку [¶] органи мови займають таке ж положення, як і при вимові звуку [q]. Звук [¶] відрізняється від звуку [q] лише дзвінкістю.


Exercise A

through - fifth - myth

thief - booth - tooth

thank - think - thought

theatre - theory - theft

threat - three - thunder

threw - throat - thumb

faith - heart - path

bath - booth - broth

Exercise З

Exercise У

thermometer - thick - thin

thirst - thirty - thorough

this - that - these - those

there - though

them - they - the

Text A: «THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA»


The United States of America is the 4 th largest country in the world after Russia, Canada and China. It occupies the central part of the North American continent.

The United States of America is a federal republic, consisting of 50 states including the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, and the US Virgin Islands.

The northern boundary is partly formed by the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence River; the southern boundary is partly formed by the Rio Grande. United States also has a sea-border with Russia.

The total area of the United States (including the District of Columbia) is about 9,809,000 sq km.

The country is washed by 3 oceans: the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific. The country has many lakes, with the Great Lakes included. There are also many rivers on the US territory. The longest of them are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Columbia, the Rio Grande and some others. On the US territory there are mountains and lowlands. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak, Mount McKinley, is located in Alaska.

The climate conditions are rather different. The country is rich in natural and mineral resources: oil, gas, iron ore, coal and various metals.

The USA is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. The main industrial branches are aircraft, rocket, automobile, electronics, radio-engineering and others.

Americans are made ​​up from nearly all races and nations. The country population is over 250 min. The national symbol of the USA is its national flag «Stars and Stripes», having 50 white stars and 13 white and red stripes on its field, symbolising the number of the original and present day states.

Officially the country comprises 50 states and one District of Columbia. The states differ in size, population and economic development. Each state has its own capital. The capital of the USA is Washington. It is situated in the District of Columbia on the banks of the Potomac river and is named after the 1 st US President - George Washington. There are many large cities in the country: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San Francisco-, Cleveland and some others.

The United States of America is a federal state, headed by the President. According to the US Constitution the powers of the Government are divided into 3 branches: legislative, executive and judicial.

The legislative power belongs to the Congress consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states while the House of Representatives - the population. The executive power belongs to the President and his Administration (Vice-President and Cabinet of Ministers). The judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court and the system of Federal, state and district courts.

There are several political parties in the USA, the largest of them are the Republican (symbolised by a donkey) and the Democratic (symbolised by an elephant).

Vocabulary:

outlying areas - зовнішні території

District of Columbia - округ Колумбія

to pass - проходити через

frontier - кордон

to include - включати

lowlands - низини

peak - вершина, пік

to be located - розташовуватися

aircraft - повітряне судно

to be made ​​up from - бути складеним, складатися з

stripe - смуга

to symbolize - символізувати

legislative power - законодавча влада

to represent - представляти

to belong - належати

donkey - осел

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

a) Great Plains - Великі рівнини

Appalachian mountains - гори Аппалачі

Rocky mountains - Скелясті гори

b) driveway - проїзд, виїзд

sidewalk - тротуар

drive-thru shop - магазин, покупки в якому виробляються через вікно автомобіля

toll-road - платна дорога (магістраль)

toll-free road - безкоштовна дорога

highway, parkway, thruway - автомагістралі

turnpike - головна магістраль

shopping mall-- торговий центр

shopping plaza - відкрита торговельна площа, торговий ряд

free delivery - безкоштовна доставка

telephone order - телефонне замовлення

sale - розпродаж

discount - знижка

seasons sale - сезонний розпродаж

clearance sale - розпродаж покладів товарів

discount coupon - купон на знижку

free gift - безкоштовний подарунок

Exercise 7.1. Translate into English:

1. США - четверта за розміром країна після Росії, Канади і Китаю.

2. Зовнішні межі включають в себе Пуерто Ріко, Американське Самоа і Віргінські острова.

3.48 Штатів межують на півночі з Канадою, а на півдні з Мексикою.

4. США має морський кордон з Російською Федерацією.

6. США омивається трьома океанами: Північним Льодовитим, Атлантичним і Тихим.

7. США - високорозвинена промислова держава з безліччю галузей.

8. Аерокосмічна та електронні галузі промисловості США займають особливе місце в економіці США.

9. Кожен штат має свою столицю.


Text В: «TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF THE USA»


The development of transport facilities was very important in the growth of the United States. The first travel routes were natural waterways. No surfaced roads existed until the 1790s, when the first turnpikes were built. Besides the overland roads, many canals were constructed between the late 18th century and 1850 to link navigable rivers and lakes in the eastern United States and in the Great Lakes region. Steam railways began to appear in the East in the 1820s. The first transcontinental railway was constructed between 1862 and 1869 by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific companies, both of which received large subsidies from the federal government. Transcontinental railways were the chief means of transport used by European settlers who populated the West in the latter part of the 19th century. The railways continued to expand until 1917, when their length reached a peak of about 407,000 km. Since then motor transport became a serious competitor to the railway both for passengers and freight.

Air transport began to compete with other modes of transport after World War I. Passenger service began to gain importance in 1920s, but not until the beginning of commercial jet craft after World War II did air transport become a leading mode of travel.

During the early 1990s railways annually handled about 37,5 per cent of the total freight traffic; trucks carried 26 per cent of the freight, and oil pipelines conveyed 20 per cent. Approximately 16 per cent was shipped on inland waterways. Although the freight handled by airlines amounted to only 0,4 per cent of the total, much of the cargo consisted of high-priority or high-value items.

Private cars carry about 81 per cent of passengers. Airlines are the second leading mover of people, carrying more than 17 per cent of passengers. Buses are responsible for 1,1 per cent, and railways carry 0,6 per cent of passengers.

Roads and Railways

The transport network spreads into all sections of the country, but the web of railways and highways is much more dense in the eastern half of the United States.

In the early 1990s the United States had about 6,24 million km of streets, roads, and highways. The National Interstate Highway System, 68,449 km in length in the early 1990s, connected the nation's principal cities and carried about one-fifth of all the road and street traffic.

More than 188 million motor vehicles were registered in the early 1990s. More than three-quarters were cars - one for every two persons in the country. About one-fifth of the vehicles were lorries. Amtrak (the National Railroad Passenger Corporation), a federally subsidized concern, operates almost all the inter-city passenger trains in the United States; it carried more than 22 million passengers annually in the early 1990s.

General understanding:

1. What were the first routes in the US?

2. When was the first transcontinental railway constructed?

3. What was the length of railroads in 1917?

4. When did air transport start to gain importance?

5. How many motor vehicles were registered in US in early 90s?

6. What is Amtrak? How many passengers did it carry annually in the early 90s?


GRAMMAR


§ 1. Узгодження часів у головному і підрядному реченнях


В англійській складнопідрядному реченні з підрядним додатковим (питання «що?», «Хто?», «Чого?» І т. д.) дотримуються правила узгодження часів у головному і підрядному реченнях. Ці правила зводяться до наступного:

1. Якщо дієслово-присудок головного речення стоїть в сьогоденні або майбутньому часі, то дієслово-присудок підрядного додаткового речення може стояти в будь-якій часовій формі, необхідної глуздом, наприклад:

Чи не says you are right. - Він говорить, що ти правий.

Чи не will tell why he was not at school yesterday. - Він скаже, чому він не був у школі вчора.

2. Якщо дієслово-присудок головного речення стоїть в минулому часі (зазвичай - у Past Indefinite), то й дієслово додаткового підрядного речення повинен стояти в одному з минулих часів, в тому числі - в майбутньому з точки зору минулого (Future in the Past).

He said he would not go to school tomorrow. - Він сказав, що не піде в школу завтра.

При цьому для позначення дії, одночасного з дією, вираженим присудком головного речення, вживається Past Continuous російською мовою - теперішній час) або Past Indefinite.

Чи не told me he was preparing for his exam. - Він сказав мені, що готується до іспиту.

Для позначення дії, попереднього дії, вираженої присудком головного речення, зазвичай вживається Past Perfect. На російську мову дієслово-присудок підрядного в даному випадку перекладається дієсловом у минулому часі:

I didn't know he had left for Moscow. - Я не знав, що він поїхав до Москви.

При вказівці певного часу (in 1980, yesterday) попереднє час висловлюється за допомогою Past Indefinite. Наприклад: I thought you were born in 1980.

Для вираження майбутнього часу з точки зору минулого часу вживається форма Future in the Past де допоміжне дієслово wil l змінюється на would, яка на російську мову перекладається майбутнім часом:

Чи не told me that he would meet me at the Institute. - Він сказав мені, що зустріне мене в інституті.

Exercise 7.2. Open the brackets. Pay attention to the Sequence of Tenses. Translate the sentences into English.

1. I did not know that you already (to read) this book 2. He did it better than I (to expect). 3. He said that the bus (to be) here soon. 4.1 think it all happened soon after the meeting (to end). 5. They decided that they (to bring) us all the necessary books. 6. He said that he (can) not do it without my help. 7. He asked the students whether they ever (to see) such a book. 8. It was decided that we (to start) our work at eight o'clock. 9. I told you that I (to leave) for Minsk on the following day. 10. The boy did not know that he already (receive) a good mark. 12. He wanted to know what (to become) of the books. 13. The visitors were told that the secretary just (to go out) and (to come back) in half an hour. 14. He said we (may) keep the books as long as we (to like). 15. We thought that he not (to be able) to make his work in time and therefore (to offer) to help her. 16. When I came they (to tell) me that he (to leave) half an hour before. 17. It was soon clear to the teacher that the control work (to be) a difficult one. 18. I decided that next year I (to go) to see my old friend again. I not (to see) him since he (to go) to Moscow.


§ 2. Пасивний стан (Passive Voice).


Форми пасивного стану англійських дієслів утворюються за допомогою допоміжного дієслова to be у відповідному часі, особі і числі і причастя II (Participle II) смислового дієслова:


Present Indefinite

The letter is written

Past Indefinite

The letter was written

Future Indefinite

The letter will be written

Present Continuous

The letter is being written

Past Continuous

The letter was being written

Future Continuous

The letter will be being written

Present Perfect

The letter has been written

Past Perfect

The letter had been written

Future Perfect

The letter will have been written


Дієслово-присудок в пасивному стані показує, що підмет пропозиції є об'єктом дії з боку іншої особи або предмета.

Порівняйте: I bought a book. - Я купив книгу.

The book was bought (by me). - Книга була куплена (мною).

Дієслова в пасивному стані на російську мову переводяться

1. дієсловом бути + коротка форма причастя пасивного стану:

The letter was sent yesterday. Лист було надіслано вчора.

2. дієсловом із часткою-ся (-сь):

This problem was discussed last week. Ця проблема обговорювалася на минулому тижні.

3. невизначено-особовим обігом, тобто дієсловом у дійсній заставі 3 особи множини, типу «говорять», «сказали»:

English is spoken in many countries. Англійською мовою говорять у багатьох країнах.

4. дієсловом у дійсній заставі (за наявності виконавця дії):

Pupils are taught at school by the teachers. Учнів навчають у школі вчителі.

Exercise 7.3. Translate into English. Determine the Tense and Voice of the verb:

1. He left for Moscow. 2. The news will be of great interest. 3. They were speaking to him. 4. She studied many subjects. 5. He was much spoken about. 6. New subjects will be studied next term. 7. I am working now. 8. The text has already been written by them. 9. He studies at our school. 10. You are playing chess, aren't you? 11. The text is being translated at the moment. 12. Do you work at this lab? 13. When I saw him, he was going home. 14. They will have passed their exams by 3 o'clock. 15. This book was written by our teacher. 16. We shall be writing our tests at 10 o'clock. 17. The work will have been done when he comes. 18. We translated this text. 19. The letter had been written before we came. 20. We shall inform you. 21. These toys are made ​​in Japan. 22. Does he work here? 23. Is he working now? 24. The conference will be held in May. 25. Rostov was named after Dmitry Rostovsky. 26.What are you doing here? 27. This work must be done at once. 28. You may take my book. 29. I am often asked at the lessons. 30. This article was being translated when I came.

Exercise 7.4. Translate into English. Determine the Tense and Voice of the verb:

l.They can be seen in our library every day. 2. The delegation is headed by the Prime Minister. 3. The child was often left home alone. 4. These houses were built last year. 5. All letters had been written when we came. 6. This film is much spoken about. 7. The machine is being tested now. 8. His work has been already finished. 9.1 was told to wait for him. 10.Your letter will have been answered by Monday. 11. The experiment was being carried out from ten till twelve o'clock. 12.Children under sixteen will not be admitted here.

Exercise 7.5. Put the verbs in brackets in the right form:

1. I'm not reading these books today. They (return) to the library. 2. The paintings (exhibit) till the end of the month. 3. Why your home task (not do)? 4. She was taken to the hospital today, and (operate) tomorrow morning. 5. This room (use) only on special occasions. 6. Bicycles must not (leave) here. 7. This newspaper (not read). The pages (not cut). 8. Dictionaries may not (use) at the examination. 9. Usually this street (sweep) every day, but it (not sweep) yesterday. 10. This book (leave) in the classroom yesterday; it (find) by the teacher. 11. Thousands of new houses (build) every year. 12. This room (not use) for a long time. 13. The children are very excited this morning. They (take) to the circus this afternoon.

Exercise 7.6. Translate into English:

1. Ця книга була прочитана усіма. 2. Лист буде відправлено завтра. 3. Її часто запитують? 4. На ваше запитання дадуть відповідь завтра. 5. Текст перекладався вчора з двох до трьох. 6. Робота тільки що завершена нами. 7. Ці книги вже будуть опубліковані до кінця року. 8. Наша контрольна робота зараз перевіряється? 9. Про нову книжку будуть багато говорити. 10. У нашому місті зараз будується багато нових будівель. 11. Ключі були загублені вчора. 12. Хлопчика візьмуть у кіно. 13. Вам сказали про це? 14. Телеграма вже отримана?

Exercise 7.7. Translate into English:

1. Він сказав мені, що текст буде переведений до 10 години завтра. 2. Всі картини, які ви тут бачите, написані одним і тим же художником. 3. Лист буде відправлено завтра. 4. Робота буде закінчена в термін. 5. За доктором послали? Зробіть це як можна швидше. У дитини висока температура. 6. Ця книга була написана до того, як автор став знаменитим. 7. Сотні нових будинків будуть побудовані до кінця цього року. 8. Ця історія давно забута всіма. 9. Мені запропонували дуже цікаву роботу. 10. Він серйозний чоловік. На нього завжди можна покластися. 11. За старою жінкою доглядає її молодша дочка. 12. На вечорі нам показали прекрасний фільм. 13. Його вдарили м'ячем. 14. З ним необхідно негайно поговорити з цього питання. 15. Вам поставлять декілька питань на іспиті. 16. Їй було дано список учасників зборів. 17. Промова була заслухана з великою увагою. 18. Вам пояснять, як дістатися до залізничного вокзалу. 19. Про цю п'єсу зараз багато говорять. 20. Делегацію потрібно зустріти завтра о 9 годині ранку в аеропорту.


UNIT 8

HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UK


I. Приголосні звуки [w], [h].

II. Text A: «Higher Education In the UK».

III. § 1. Складне доповнення (Complex object).

§ 2. Причастя і герундій.


Приголосний звук [w]. При проголошенні губи округлені та значно висунуті вперед, а задня частина мови займає приблизно таке ж положення, як при проголошенні російського [у]. Струмінь повітря, що видихається з силою проходить через утворену між губами круглу щілину. Губи енергійно розсуваються.

Приголосний звук [h]. При проголошенні приголосного задня спина мови змикається з опущеним м'яким небом, і повітря проходить через носову порожнину.


Exercise A

what - why - where

whip - wheat - while

Exercise З

wall - wallet - walk

walnut - waltz - won

Exercise У

war - wharf - water

wedding - wage - wait

waitress - waist - waste

weather - woman - wind

Exercise D

wing - king - sting

sing - nothing - something

everything - anything - ring


Text A: "HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UK»


Education after 16 is voluntary in United Kingdom. Students, who live in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland must take at the age of 16 the examinations for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In Scotland students receive the Scottish Certificate of Education. After this exam students can choose to stay on in school or attend colleges of further education.

British universities are self-governing and are guaranteed academic independence. Funding for education and research is provided by funding councils set up by Parliament. The number of universities jumped in 1992 when polytechnics and some other higher education establishments were given the right to become universities. By the end of 1994, there were some 90 universities, almost half of them former polytechnics, including the Open University.

Many of the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge universities were founded in the 12th and 13th centuries. All other universities in Britain were founded in the 19 th and 20 th centuries. The Open University, based in Milton Keynes, England, was founded in 1969. It uses extension techniques of correspondence courses, television and radio programmes, and video cassettes, supported by local study centres and summer schools, to provide higher education opportunities to a wide variety of people.

During the 1960s there was a significant increase in the number of new universities, reflecting a fast growth in student numbers. During the 1980s, an expansion in higher education places led to another large jump in student numbers. In the 1992-1993 academic year there were more than 1,4 million students in full or part-time higher education in Great Britain, compared with just under 850,000 a decade earlier. About one quarter of young people are in higher education in England, Wales, and Scotland; one third in Northern Ireland. About 90 per cent of students get state grants to cover tuition fees and living costs.

The size of the grant is determined by parents income. Since the late 1980s, however, grants have been frozen; students can apply for a student loan.

Vocabulary:

voluntary - добровільне

attend - відвідувати

self-governing - самоврядний

funding - фінансування

funding councils - поради з фінансування

to set up - засновувати

significant - значний

polytechnics - політехнічні інститути

extension techniques - технології дистанційної освіти

to reflect - відображати

decade - десятиріччя

state grants - державні гарантії

tuition fee - плата за навчання

parents income - дохід батьків

student loan - студентський позику

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

a) high-school diploma - шкільний атестат

graduation ceremony - випускний іспит

Bachelor of Science (BS) - бакалавр природничих наук

Bachelor of Art (BA) - бакалавр гуманітарних наук

Master of Art (MA) - магістр мистецтв

Master of Science (MS) - магістр природничих наук

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) - доктор філософії

undergraduate student - студент 1-4 (5) курсів

graduate student - студент 5-6 курсів

graduate school of robotics - магістратура (аспірантура) за спеціальністю робототехніка

b) room (lodging) and board - проживання та харчування

personal expenses - особисті витрати

books and supplies - книги та матеріали

to be eligible for admission - бути підходящою кандидатурою для вступу

to enrol - зараховувати

enrollment - зарахування

admissions office - приймальна комісія

student services office - департамент по роботі зі студентами

university bursar's (скарбник) office - бухгалтерія університету (офіс скарбника)

Exercise 8.1. Translate into English:

1) У віці 16 років кожен житель Великобританії зобов'язаний здати іспити на отримання Сертифікату про середню освіту.

2) Британські університети є повністю самоврядними.

3) У 1992 році Політехнічним інститутам була надано право стати університетами.

4) Відкритий університет, широко відомий своїми технологіями дистанційного навчання, був заснований в 1969 році.

5) У 60-і роки в Сполученому королівстві намітилося значне зростання числа університетів.

6) Розмір гранту на навчання визначається виходячи з доходу батьків.


GRAMMAR


§ 1. Складне доповнення (Complex object)


Складне доповнення - це поєднання іменника чи займенника в об'єктному відмінку (напр. me, him, us, them) з інфінітивом або дієприкметником I. Існує в трьох основних варіантах:

1. З інфінітивом без частки to або з причастям 1 після дієслів сприйняття

see I saw him drive the car. I saw them working in the lab.

watch We watched the plane land. We watched the children playing in the yard.

notice Nobody noticed him go out. He didn't notice that happen.

feel She felt somebody touch her ​​hand. They didn't feel the train start.

hear I didn't hear you come into the room. I heard her playing piano.

У першому випадку (вищеперераховані дієслова з інфінітивом без частки to) підкреслюється факт дії, у другому (ці ж дієслова з причастям I) - процес дії.

I saw him enter the house. - Я бачив, як він увійшов до будинку.

I saw him entering the house. - Я бачив, як він заходив до будинку.

2. З інфінітивом без частки to після дієслів

to let: Don't let them play in the street.

to make: Don't make me laugh.

3. З інфінітивом з часткою to після дієслів

to want I want you to find me a place in the first row.

to expect I expect you to come in time.

to believe I believe her to be a very good teacher.

to know I know him to be a good student.

to advise I advise you to enter the institute.

to consider The climate in England is considered to be mild.

to order He is ordered not to be late.

to allow They allow to use dictionaries at the exam.

to like I would like you to finish your work,

to find I find your story to be very interesting.

Exercise 8.2. Put the verbs in brackets in the right form:

1. He made ​​me (do) it all over again. 2. Her father made ​​her (learn) the lessons. 3. If you want us (make) the work quickly you should let us (start) at once. 4. Would you like me (read) now? 5. They won't let us (leave) the classroom till our control work has been checked. 6. He wouldn't let the children (play) in his study. 7. Please let me (know) the results of your exam as soon as possible. 8. He made ​​us (wait) for two hours. 9. I let him (go) early as he had done his task. 10. I'd like him (enter) the university but I can't make him (do) it. 11. I want her (learn) English. 12. I heard the door (open) and saw my friend (come) into the room. 13. I heard her (play) the piano. 14. I saw him (go out) of the house. 15. The teacher advised us (use) dictionaries. 16. Her father doesn't allow her (go) to the cinema alone. 17. We expect our basketball team (win) next game. 18. We don't want you (tell) anything. 19. I saw them (open) the window. 20. That is too difficult for you to do, let me (help) you.

Exercise 8.3. Translate into English:

1. Ви хочете, щоб діти грали тут? 2. Ви хочете, щоб ми зустрілися сьогодні? 3. Ви очікуєте, робота буде зроблена скоро? 4. Ми очікуємо, що вони добре проведуть у нас час. 5. Я хочу, щоб він закінчив цю роботу. 6. Ми чули, що вона знає, коли ми складаємо іспит. 7. Ви хочете, щоб ми обговорили це питання сьогодні? 8. Ми очікуємо, що на цьому місці буде побудований новий будинок. 9. Ви хотіли б, щоб робота була зроблена сьогодні?


§ 2. Причастя і герундій. Їх відмінність


(Participle I)

Причастя I (дієприкметник теперішнього часу), утворене за допомогою закінчення-ing, має активну і пасивні форми:

активна (недосконалий вид) - asking,

активна (досконалий вигляд) - having asked.

пасивні (недосконалий) - being asked,

пасивні (досконалий) - having been asked.

Причастя I вживається у функції:

1. Визначення:

The man sitting at the table is our teacher. - Людина, що сидить за столом - наш учитель.

The houses being built in our town are not very high. - Удома, що будуються в нашому місті, невисокі.

2. Обставини:

Going home I met an old friend. - Йдучи додому, я зустрів старого друга.

Having finished work I went home. - Закінчивши роботу, я пішов додому.

Причастя II (Participle II)

Причастя II (дієприкметник минулого часу) завжди пасивно. Утворюється воно додатком суфікса-ed до основи правильного дієслова або шляхом чергування звуків у корені неправильного дієслова.

Причастя II вживається у функції:

1. Визначення.

The book translated from English is interesting. - Книга, перекладена з англійської мови, цікава.

2. Обставини (причини і часу):

Given the task he began to work. - Коли йому дали завдання він почав працювати.

Вживання герундія і його відмінність від причастя I

Причастя - неособиста форма дієслова, проміжна між дієсловом і прикметником:

The boy playing in the yard is my brother, - Хлопчик, (який?) Грає у дворі, - мій брат.

Герундій також є неособистої формою дієслова, проміжною між іменником і дієсловом:

Smoking is harmful. - Куріння (що?) Шкідливо.

Іншими словами, причастя-більшою мірою «прикметник» за своїми функціями, герундій - «іменник».

Герундій вживається:

1. як що підлягає:

Reading is useful.

2. Як частина присудка після дієслів to finish, to start, to continue, to go on, to keep та ін

He started reading the book.

3. як прийменниково додаток: I am fond of reading.

4. як пряме доповнення: Do you mind my reading here?

5. як обставина часу: After reading he closed the book.

6. як обставина способу дії: Instead of reading he went to the movies.

Активна форма герундія: giving, beating.

Пасивна форма герундія: being given, being beaten.

Exercise 8.4. Open the brackets using the gerund:

1. The grass in the garden is very dry, it needs (water). 2. It's very warm outside. You don't need (put on) yourcoat. 3. The house is old, and it wants (repair). 4. Famous people don't need (introduce) themselves. 5. The carpet is covered with dust, it needs (sweep). 6. The shoes are very dirty, they need (polish). 7. These shoes have a hole, they want (mend). 8. The table cloth is quite clean, it doesn't want (wash) yet. 9. The room needed (clean). 10. (Learn) foreign languages ​​is very useful. 12. I know my hair wants (cut) but I never have time to go to the hairdresser's. 13. John needed (cheer up) when he heard that he'd failed his exams. 14. You should tidy up the garden. - Yes, it needs (tidy). The roses want (water), the peaches want (pick), the grass wants (cut).


UNIT 9

MY FUTURE PROFESSION


I. Звуки [au], [dr], [br], [gr], [tr], [fr], [q r].

II. Text A: «My future profession»,

Text B: «The Future of the engineering profession»

III. § 1. Придаткові пропозиції умови і часу, дія яких віднесено до майбутнього.

§ 2. Умовний спосіб в умовних реченнях.


Exercise A

now - how - brown

out - now - house

louse - mouse - cows

out - loud - without

Exercise У

brain - brakes - brand

brunch - branch - brave

Brazil - breach - break

breath - broth - breathe

Exercise D

treasure - trainer - trench

draw - dribble - draft

drag - drab - drank

drain - dragon - drama

drape - dreadful - drugs

Dresden - dress - dry

drill - drop - drink

drive - drown - drum

drift - drier - droopy

Exercise З

brown - bread - brace

track - trade - traffic

troops - trend - trail

translate - transmit - trance

Exercise E

France - French - fruit

fry - frame - free

three - thread - throat

threat - through - thrill

thirty - throne - threaten


Text A: "MY FUTURE PROFESSION"


Hi, there! Here is Ann Sokolova again. I am afraid this will be my last meeting with you because I need to pack my suitcase. I am leaving for Sochi tonight. I have passed all the exams successfully and I'm free till the 1 st of September.

As I have already told you, I was always good in mathematics and physics. My parents bought me a computer when I was in the 10 th form. Since then I knew that I would become a specialist in computer technologies - a computer engineer.

Computer industry is developing so fast, that it comprises almost all spheres of professional life. No business now is possible without computers. This is especially true about automated manufacturing of products and robotics. Computer control of automated production opens new horizons for the cheap and quality production of goods. Information is now generated, transmitted, received, and stored electronically through computer networks on a scale unprecedented in history, and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue.

Computer engineering is a general field. It deals with both electric and electronic industries.

Electronic engineering deals with the research, design, integration, and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information.

Engineers in the field of electric and electronic engineering are concerned with all aspects of electrical communications, from fundamental questions such as «What is information?» To the highly practical, such as the design of telephone systems. In designing communication systems, engineers rely on various branches of advanced mathematics, such as Fourier analysis, linear systems theory, linear algebra, differential equations, and probability theory.

Engineers work on control systems which are used extensively in automated manufacturing and in robotics.

Major developments in the field of communications and control have been the replacement of analogue systems with digital systems; fibre optics are used now instead of copper cables. Digital systems offer far greater immunity to electrical noise. Fibre optics are likewise immune to interference; they also have great carrying capacity, and are extremely light and inexpensive to manufacture.

Computer engineering is now the most rapidly growing field. The electronics of computers is the design and manufacture of memory systems, of central processing units, and of peripheral devices. The most prospective industry now is the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and new computer architectures. The field of computer science is closely related to computer engineering; however, the task of making computers more «intelligent» (artificial intelligence), through creation of sophisticated programs or development of higher level machine languages ​​or other means, is generally regarded as the dream of computer science.

One current trend in computer engineering is microminiaturization. Engineers continue to work to fit greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips.

Another trend is towards increasing the speed of computer operations through the use of parallel processors and superconducting materials.

So, as you see, there are a lot of employment opportunities in my field. I don't worry about finding a job. The most important thing for me now is to study well and to graduate from the Academy.

Vocabulary:

to comprise - включати в себе

automated manufacturing of products - автоматизоване виробництво товарів

robotics - робототехніка

horizons - горизонти

cheap - дешевий

to generate - генерувати, виробляти

to transmit - передавати

to store - зберігати

scale - масштаб

unprecedented in history - не має прецедентів в історії

indication - вказівка, свідоцтво

explosive - вибуховий

to deal with - мати справу з, займатися чим-небудь

integration - інтеграція

application - додаток, використання

circuits - електричні схеми, ланцюги

device - пристрій

transmission - передача

processing - обробка

to rely - покладатися

Fourier analysis - аналіз Фур'є

linear systems theory - теорія лінійних систем

linear algebra - лінійна алгебра

differential equations - диференціальні рівняння

probability theory - теорія ймовірності

extensively - широко

replacement - заміщення

fibre optics - оптоволоконні технології

copper - мідь

digital - цифровий

immunity - захищеність, несприйнятливість

carrying capacity - пропускна здатність

light - легкий

rapidly growing - швидко зростаючий

artificial intelligence - штучний розум

sophisticated - складний

superconducting - надпровідність

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

a) mechanical engineer - інженер-механік

electric engineer - інженер-електрик

electronic engineer - інженер електронік

computer engineer - інженер-комп'ютерник

military engineer - військовий інженер

b) prestigious job (work) - престижна робота

well-paid job - високооплачувана робота

employee - найманий робітник

employer - наймодавець

businessman - підприємець, бізнесмен

state-employed - державний службовець

white-collar worker - «білий комірець», працівник розумової праці

blue-collar worker - «синій комірець», працівник фізичної праці

skilled worker - кваліфікований робітник

unskilled worker - некваліфікований робітник

experienced worker - досвідчений працівник

c) to be hired for a job - бути найнятим на виконання роботи

to look for a new job (work, position) - шукати нову роботу

to apply for a new job - претендувати на будь-яку посаду

application for a position of - заява на будь-яку посаду

resume - резюме

CV (curriculum vitae) - автобіографія

to be fired - бути звільненим

to retire - йти на пенсію

to be unemployed - бути безробітним

Exercise 9.1. Translate into English:

1. Батьки купили мені комп'ютер, коли я вчилася (ся) в десятому класі.

2. Ніякої сучасний бізнес не можливий без комп'ютерної техніки.

3. Комп'ютерна індустрія - найбільш бистроразвівающеся виробництво.

4. Комп'ютерне управління автоматизованими виробничими лініями відкриває нові горизонти дешевого і якісного виробництва товарів.

5. Великим досягненням у сфері комунікації є заміна аналогових систем на ціфорвие.

6. В даний час оптоволоконні цифрові технології забезпечують більш якісну і доступну зв'язок, ніж аналогові системи.

Exercise 9.2. How do you see your future profession? Please answer the following questions:

1) What kind of work are you interested in?

a) well paid

b) interesting

c) in a large and famous company

d) quiet

e) in an industry which has a future

f) prestigious

g) not to sit the whole day in the office

h) to travel a lot

2) What position would you like to have?

a) to manage people - manager

b) to work for someone else - an employee

c) to be your own boss - self-employed, businessman

d) to be responsible for everything - top manager, director

e) to work for the state - state employee

Exercise 9.3. Please discuss with your group advantages and disadvantages of your future profession. Do you think that engineering profession is prestigios? Is it well-paid? How difficult is it to find a good work in this field?


Text B «THE FUTURE OF THE ENGINEERING PROFESSION»


Among various recent trends in the engineering profession computerization is the most widespread. The trend in modern engineering offices is also towards computerization. Computers are increasingly used for solving complex problems as well as for handling, storing, and generating the enormous volume of data modern engineers must work with.

Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not connected directly to manufacture and construction. Modern engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems engineering principles.

Engineers in industry work not only with machines but also with people, to determine, for example, how machines can be operated most efficiently by workers. A small change in the location of the controls of a machine or of its position with relation to other machines or equipment, or a change in the muscular movements of the operator, often results in greatly increased production. This type of engineering work is called time-study engineering.

A related field of engineering, human-factors engineering, also known as ergonomics, received wide attention in the late 1970s and 1980s when the safety of nuclear reactors was questioned following serious accidents that were caused by operator errors, design failures, and malfunctioning equipment.

Human-factors engineering seeks to establish criteria for the efficient, human-centred design of, among other things, the large, complicated control panels that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations.

General understanding:

1. What is the most widespread trend in the engineering profession?

2. What are computers used for in modern engineering?

3. What approaches are used in modern engineering?

4. What is «ergonomics»?

5. What does human-factors engineering deal with?

GRAMMAR


§ 1. Придаткові пропозиції умови і часу, дія яких віднесено до майбутнього


У додаткових пропозиціях умови і часу з спілками

If (якщо),

when (коли),

after (після),

before (перед тим, як),

as soon as (як тільки),]

unless (якщо не),

until (до тих пір, поки не),

майбутній час замінюється формою теперішнього часу, але на російську мову перекладається майбутнім, наприклад:

If you help me, I shall do this work. - Якщо ти допоможеш мені, я зроблю цю роботу.

As soon as I get free, I'll come to you. - Як тільки я звільнюся, я прийду до тебе.

We shall not begin until you come. - Ми не почнемо, поки ти не прийдеш.

Exercise 9.4. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the right form:

1. He (go) out when the weather (get) warmer. 2. I (wait) for you until you (come) back from school. 3. I'm afraid the train (start) before we (come) to the station. 4. We (go) to the country tomorrow if the weather (to be) fine. 5. We (not pass) the examination next year if we not (work) harder. 6. If you (not drive) more carefully you (have) an accident. 7. You (be) late if you (not take) a taxi. 8. I (finish) reading this book before I (go) to bed. 9. You must (send) us a telegram as soon as you (arrive). 10. We (have) a picnic tomorrow if it (be) a fine day. 11. We (go) out when it (stop) raining. 12. We (not to have) dinner until you (come). 13. I'm sure they (write) to us when they (know) our new address.

Прочитайте приклади і запам'ятайте найбільш уживані суфікси іменників

-ег/ог - teacher, writer, actor, doctor

-Ist - scientist, artist, dentist

-Ment - government, movement, development

- (T) ion - revolution, translation, operation

-ity/ty - popularity, honesty, ability

-sion/ssion - revision, session, discussion,

-Ness - happiness, illness, darkness

Прочитайте приклади і запам'ятайте найбільш уживані суфікси і префікси дієслів.

re-- rewrite, rebuild, reconstruct,

mis-- misprint, misunderstand, miscount.

Прочитайте приклади і запам'ятайте найбільш уживані суфікси і префікси прикметників.

un-- unhappy, unable, uncomfortable

dis-- dishonest, discouraging, disconnectng

Прочитайте приклади і запам'ятайте основні суфікси числівників.

-Teen - fifteen, sixteen, eighteen

-Ty - twenty, thirty, sixty, ninety

-Th - fourth, seventh, eighteenth

Exercise 9.5. Make up adjectives from the following words:

colour, beauty, peace, use, hope, truth, rain, help, power, pain, care.


§ 2. Умовний спосіб в умовних реченнях


Умовний спосіб виражає можливість, нереальність, імовірно дії.

Дійсного способу.

If I learn his address I shall write to him. - Якщо я дізнаюся його адресу, я йому напишу.

Умовний спосіб:

If I knew his address I would write to him. - Якби я знав його адресу (зараз), я написав би йому (зараз або в найближчому майбутньому). Дієслово в підрядному реченні - у формі Past Indefinite, в головному - у формі Future in the Past.

У випадку, якщо дія, що описується умовний спосіб, відноситься до минулого часу, в головному реченні використовується форма майбутнього досконалого з точки зору минулого Future Perfect in the Past, а в підрядному - минуле вчинене Past Perfect.

If I had known his address I would have written to him. - Якби я знав його адреса (у минулому), я написав би йому (у минулому ж).

I wish I lived not far from here. (Теперішній час).-Шкода, що я не живу поблизу.

I wish I had lived not far from here (минулий час). - Шкода, що я не жив поблизу.

Exercise 9.6. Translate into Russian:

1. If I came later I would be late for the lesson. 2. If he had known the time-table he wouldn't have missed the train. 3. It would be better if you learned the oral topics. 3. I wish I had known this before the examination. 4. I would have come to you if you had not lived so far away. 5. If I had seen you yesterday I would have given you my text-book. 6. If I were in your place I wouldn't buy the tickets beforehand. 7. If I had known that you needed help I would have helped you.

UNIT 1

METALS


I. Text A: «Metals», Text B: «Steel», Text C: «Methods of steel heat treatment»

II. Famous Scientists. Dmitry Ivanovlch Mendeleyev.


Text A: «METALS»


Metals are materials most widely used in industry because of their properties. The study of the production and properties of metals is known as metallurgy.

The separation between the atoms in metals is small, so most metals are dense. The atoms are arranged regularly and can slide over each other. That is why metals are malleable (can be deformed and bent without fracture) and ductile (can be drawn into wire). Metals vary greatly in their properties. For example, lead is soft and can be bent by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat.

The regular arrangement of atoms in metals gives them a crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called grains. The properties of the metals depend on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of these grains. In general, a metal with small grains will be harder and stronger than one with coarse grains.

Heat treatment such as quenching, tempering, or annealing controls the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. Small amounts of other metals (less than 1 per cent) are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (легування) and it changes the grain structure and properties of metals.

All metals can be formed by drawing, rolling, hammering and extrusion, but some require hot-working. Metals are subject to metal fatigue and to creep (the slow increase in length under stress) causing deformation and failure. Both effects are taken into account by engineers when designing, for example, airplanes, gas-turbines, and pressure vessels for high-temperature chemical processes. Metals can be worked using machine-tools such as lathe, milling machine, shaper and grinder.

The ways of working a metal depend on its properties. Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds, but special conditions are required for metals that react with air.

Vocabulary:

property - властивість

metallurgy - металургія

separation - поділ, отстояния

dense - щільний

arrangement - розташування

regularly - регулярно, правильно

to slide - ковзати

malleable - ковкий, податливий, здатний деформуватися

bent pp of bend - гнути

to fracture - ламати

ductile - еластичний, ковкий

to draw - волочити, тягнути

wire - дріт

lead - свинець

iron - залізо, чавун

grain - зерно

to depend - залежати

size - розмір, величина

shape - форма, формувати

composition - склад

coarse - грубий, великий

treatment - обробка

quenching - загартування

tempering - відпустка після гарту, нормалізація

annealing - відпал, відпустку

rolling - прокатка

to hammer - кувати (напр. молотом)

extrusion - екструзія

metal fatigue - втома металу

creep - повзучість

stress - тиск,

failure - пошкодження, руйнування

vessel - посудина, котел, судно

lathe - токарний верстат

milling machine - фрезерний верстат

shaper - стругальний верстат

grinder - шліфувальний верстат

to melt - плавити, плавитися розплавити

to cast - відливати, відлити

mould - форма (для виливки)

General understanding:

1. What are metals and what do we call metallurgy?

2. Why are most metals dense?

3. Why are metals malleable?

4. What is malleability?

5. What are grains?

6. What is alloying?

7. What is crystalline structure?

8. What do the properties of metals depend on?

9. What changes the size of grains in metals?

10. What are the main processes of metal forming?

11. How are metals worked?

12. What is creeping?

Exercise 1.1. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:

1. Властивості металів

2. відстань між атомами

3. правильне розташування

4. сильно відрізняються за своїми властивостями

5. кристалічна структура

6. розмір зерен

7. форма зерен

8. гарт

9. відпал

10.волоченіе

11.прокатка

12.ковка

13.екструзія

14. структура і властивості зерна

15. гаряча обробка

16. втома металу

17. повзучість металу

18. плавка і виливок у форми

19. способи обробки металів

Exercise 1.2. Complete the following sentences:

1. Metals are ...

2. Metallurgy is ...

3. Most metals are ...

4. The regular arrangement of atoms in metals ...

5. Irregular crystals ...

6. The properties of the metals depend ...

7. Metals with small grains will be ...

8 .... controls the nature of the grains in the metal.

9. Alloying is ...

10. All metals can be formed by ...

11. Creep is ...

12. Metals can be worked using ...

Exercise 1.3. Explain in English the meaning of the following words:

1. malleability

2. crystalline structure

3. grains

4. heat treatment

5. alloying

6. creep

Exercise 1.4. Translate into English:

1. Метали - щільні матеріали тому, що між атомами в металах малу відстань.

2. Метали мають кристалічну структуру з-за правильного розташування атомів.

3. Чим менше зерна, тим твердіше метал.

4. Загартування і відпал змінюють форму і розмір зерен в металах.

5. Легування змінює структуру зерен і властивості металів.

6. Метал деформується і руйнується з-за втоми і повзучості.


Text В: «STEEL»


The most important metal in industry is iron and its alloy - steel. Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. It is strong and stiff, but corrodes easily through rusting, although stainless and other special steels resist corrosion. The amount of carbon in a steel influences its properties considerably. Steels of low carbon content (mild steels) are quite ductile and are used in the manufacture of sheet iron, wire, and pipes. Medium-carbon steels containing from 0.2 to 0.4 per cent carbon are tougher and stronger and are used as structural steels. Both mild and medium-carbon steels are suitable for forging and welding. High-carbon steels contain from 0.4 to 1.5 per cent carbon, are hard and brittle and are used in cutting tools, surgical instruments, razor blades and springs. Tool steel, also called silver steel, contains about 1 per cent carbon and is strengthened and toughened by quenching and tempering.

The inclusion of other elements affects the properties of the steel. Manganese gives extra strength and toughness. Steel containing 4 per cent silicon is used for transformer cores or electromagnets because it has large grains acting like small magnets. The addition of chromium gives extra strength and corrosion resistance, so we can get rust-proof steels. Heating in the presence of carbon or nitrogen-rich materials is used to form a hard surface on steel (case-hardening). High-speed steels, which are extremely important in machine-tools, contain chromium and tungsten plus smaller amounts of vanadium, molybdenum and other metals.

Vocabulary:

alloy - сплав

carbon - вуглець

stiff - жорсткий

to corrode - роз'їдати, іржавіти

rusty - іржавий

stainless - нержавіючий

to resist - чинити опір

considerably - значно, значно

tough - міцний, жорсткий, міцний, витривалий

forging - кування

welding - зварювання

brittle - крихкий, ламкий

cutting tools - ріжучі інструменти

surgical instruments - хірургічні інструменти

blade - лезо

spring - пружина

inclusion - включення

to affect - впливати

manganese - марганець

silicon - кремній

rust-proof - нержавіючий

nitrogen - азот

tungsten - вольфрам

General understanding:

1. What is steel?

2. What are the main properties of steel?

3. What are the drawbacks of steel?

4. What kinds of steel do you know? Where are they used?

5. What gives the addition of manganese, silicon and chromium to steel?

6. What can be made ​​of mild steels (medium-carbon steels, high-carbon steels)?

7. What kind of steels can be forged and welded?

8. How can we get rust-proof (stainless) steel?

9. What is used to form a hard surface on steel?

10. What are high-speed steels alloyed with?

Exercise 1.5. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:

1. сплав заліза і вуглецю

2. міцний і жорсткий

3. легко коррозіруєт

4. нержавіюча сталь

5. низький вміст вуглецю

6. ковкість

7. листове залізо, дріт, труби

8. конструкційні сталі

9. придатні для кування і зварювання

10. твердий і крихкий

11. ріжучі інструменти

12. хірургічні інструменти

13. інструментальна сталь

14.упрочнять

15. додавання марганцю (кремнію, хрому, вольфраму, молібдену, ванадію)


Text З: «METHODS OF STEEL HEAT TREATMENT»


Quenching is a heat treatment when metal at a high temperature is rapidly cooled by immersion in water or oil. Quenching makes steel harder and more brittle, with small grains structure.

Tempering is a heat treatment applied to steel and certain alloys. Hardened steel after quenching from a high temperature is too hard and brittle for many applications and is also brittle. Tempering, that is re-heating to an intermediate temperature and cooling slowly, reduces this hardness and brittleness. Tempering temperatures depend on the composition of the steel but are frequently between 100 and 650 ° C. Higher temperatures usually give a softer, tougher product. The color of the oxide film produced on the surface of the heated metal often serves as the indicator of its temperature.

Annealing is a heat treatment in which a material at high temperature is cooled slowly. After cooling the metal again becomes malleable and ductile (capable of being bent many times without cracking).

All these methods of steel heat treatment are used to obtain steels with certain mechanical properties for certain needs.

Vocabulary:

to immerse - занурювати

to apply - застосовувати

intermediate - проміжний

oxide film - оксидна плівка

annealing - відпал, відпустку

cracking - розтріскування

General understanding:

1. What can be done to obtain harder steel?

2. What makes steel more soft and tough?

3. What makes steel more malleable and ductile?

4. What can serve as the indicator of metal temperature while heating it?

5. What temperature range is used for tempering?

6. What are the methods of steel heat treatment used for?

Exercise 1.6. Translate into English the following words and word combinations:

1. температура нормалізації

2. дрібнозерниста структура

3. швидке охолодження

4. загартована сталь

5. склад сталі

6. окісна плівка

7. індикатор температури

8. повільне охолодження


FAMOUS PEOPLE OF SCIENCE


Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev

Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev is a famous Russian chemist. He is best known for his development of the periodic table of the properties of the chemical elements. This table displays that elements 'properties are changed periodically when they are arranged according to atomic weight.

Mendeleyev was born in 1834 in Tobolsk, Siberia. He studied chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg, and in 1859 he was sent to study at the University of Heidelberg. Mendeleyev returned to St. Petersburg and became Professor of Chemistry at the Technical Institute in 1863. He became Professor of General Chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg in 1866. Mendeleyev was a well-known teacher, and, because there was no good textbook in chemistry at that time, he wrote the two-volume «Principles of Chemistry» which became a classic textbook in chemistry.

In this book Mendeleyev tried to classify the elements according to their chemical properties. In 1869 he published his first version of his periodic table of elements. In 1871 he published an improved version of the periodic table, in which he left gaps for elements that were not known at that time. His table and theories were proved later when three predicted elements: gallium, germanium, and scandium were discovered.

Mendeleyev investigated the chemical theory of solution. He found that the best proportion of alcohol and water in vodka is 40%. He also investigated the thermal expansion of liquids and the nature of petroleum.

In 1893 he became director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures in St. Petersburg and held this position until his death in 1907.


UNIT 2

METALWORKING


I. Text A: Metalworking processes: Rolling. Extrusion,

Text B: Drawing. Forging. Sheet metal forming,

Text C: Metalworking and Metal Properties.

II. Famous scientists. Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov.


Text A: «METALWORKING PROCESSES»


Metals are important in industry because they can be easily deformed into useful shapes. A lot of metalworking processes have been developed for certain applications. They can be divided into five broad groups:

1. rolling,

2. extrusion,

3. drawing,

4. forging,

5. sheet-metal forming.

During the first four processes metal is subjected to large amounts of strain (deformation). But if deformation goes at a high temperature, the metal will recrystallize - that is, new strain-free grains will grow instead of deformed grains. For this reason metals are usually rolled, extruded, drawn, or forged above their recrystallization temperature. This is called hot working. Under these conditions there is no limit to the compressive plastic strain to which the metal can be subjected.

Other processes are performed below the recrystallization temperature. These are called cold working. Cold working hardens metal and makes the part stronger. However, there is a limit to the strain before a cold part cracks.

Rolling

Rolling is the most common metalworking process. More than 90 percent of the aluminum, steel and copper produced is rolled at least once in the course of production. The most common rolled product is sheet. Rolling can be done either hot or cold. If the rolling is finished cold, the surface will be smoother and the product stronger.

Extrusion

Extrusion is pushing the billet to flow through the orifice of a die. Products may have either a simple or a complex cross section. Aluminum window frames are the examples of complex extrusions.

Tubes or other hollow parts can also be extruded. The initial piece is a thick-walled tube, and the extruded part is shaped between a die on the outside of the tube and a mandrel held on the inside.

In impact extrusion (also called back-extrusion) (штампування видавлюванням), the workpiece is placed in the bottom of a hole and a loosely fitting ram is pushed against it. The ram forces the metal to flow back around it, with the gap between the ram and the die determining the wall thickness. The example of this process is the manufacturing of aluminum beer cans.

Vocabulary:

useful - корисний

shape - форма, формувати

rolling - прокатка

extrusion - екструзія, видавлювання

drawing - волочіння

forging - кування

sheet - лист

to subject - піддавати

amount - кількість

condition - стан, умова

perform - виконувати, проводити

to harden - робитися твердим, упрочняться

at least - принаймні

common - загальний

billet - заготівля, болванка

orifice - отвір

die - штамп, пуансон, матриця, фільєри, волочильна дошка

cross section - поперечний переріз

window frame - рама вікна

tube - труба

hollow - порожнистий

initial - початковий, початковий

thick-walled - товстостінний

mandrel - оправлення, сердечник

impact - удар

loosely - вільно, із зазором

fitting - зд. посадка

ram - пуансон, плунжер

force - сила

gap - проміжок, зазор

to determine - встановлювати, визначати

General understanding:

1. Why are metals so important in industry?

2. What are the main metalworking processes?

3. Why are metals worked mostly hot?

4. What properties does cold working give to metals?

5. What is rolling? Where is it used?

6. What is extrusion? What shapes can be obtained after extrusion?

7. What are the types of extrusion?

Exercise 2.1. Find the following in the text:

1. можуть легко деформуватися

2. потрібні форми

3. піддавати великим деформацій

4. зерна вільні від деформації

5. температура перекристалізації

6. пластична деформація стиснення

7. самий звичайний процес обробки металу

8. звичайнісіньке виріб прокату

9. отвір фільєри

10. початковий

11. складний перетин

12. пустотілі деталі

13. вільно входить плунжер

14. зазор між плунжером (пуансоном) та штампом

15. товщина стінки

Exercise 2.2. Translate into English:

1. Здатність металу перекрісталлізовивают при високій температурі використовується при гарячій

обробці.

2. Перекристалізація - це зростання нових, вільних від деформації зерен.

3. Під час гарячої обробки метал може піддаватися дуже великий пластичної деформації стиснення.

4. Холодне робить метал твердіше і міцніше, але деякі метали мають межа деформації.

5. Листовий прокат може здійснюватися гарячим або холодним.

6. Поверхня холоднокатаного листа більш гладка і він міцніший.

7. Поперечний перетин фільєри для екструзії може бути простим або складним.

8. Алюмінієві і мідні сплави є найкращими для екструзії з-за їх пластичності при деформації.

9. Алюмінієві банки, тюбики для зубної пасти є прикладами використання штамповки.

10. Товщина стінки алюмінієвої банки визначається зазором між пунсонів і штампом.


Text В: «DRAWING»


Drawing consists of pulling metal through a die. One type is wire drawing. The diameter reduction that can be achieved in one die is limited, but several dies in series can be used to get the desired reduction.

Sheet metal forming

Sheet metal forming (штампування листового металу) is widely used when parts of certain shape and size are needed. It includes forging, bending and shearing. One characteristic of sheet metal forming is that the thickness of the sheet changes little in processing. The metal is stretched just beyond its yield point (2 to 4 percent strain) in order to retain the new shape. Bending can be done by pressing between two dies. Shearing is a cutting operation similar to that used for cloth.

Each of these processes may be used alone, but often all three are used on one part. For example, to make the roof of an automobile from a flat sheet, the edges are gripped and the piece pulled in tension over a lower die. Next an upper die is pressed over the top, finishing the forming operation (штампування), and finally the edges are sheared off to give the final dimensions.

Forging

Forging is the shaping of a piece of metal by pushing with open or closed dies. It is usually done hot in order to reduce the required force and increase the metal's plasticity.

Open-die forging is usually done by hammering a part between two flat faces. It is used to make parts that are too big to be formed in a closed die or in cases where only a few parts are to be made. The earliest forging machines lifted a large hammer that was then dropped on the workpiece, but now air or steam hammers are used, since they allow greater control over the force and the rate of forming. The part is shaped by moving or turning it between blows.

Closed-die forging is the shaping of hot metal within the walls of two dies that come together to enclose the workpiece on all sides. The process starts with a rod or bar cut to the length needed to fill the die. Since large, complex shapes and large strains are involved, several dies may be used to go from the initial bar to the final shape. With closed dies, parts can be made ​​to close tolerances so that little finish machining is required.

Two closed-die forging operations are given special names. They are upsetting and coining. Coining takes its name from the final stage of forming metal coins, where the desired imprint is formed on a metal disk that is pressed in a closed die. Coining involves small strains and is done cold. Upsetting involves a flow of the metal back upon itself. An example of this process is the pushing of a short length of a rod through a hole, clamping the rod, and then hitting the exposed length with a die to form the head of a nail or bolt.

Vocabulary:

to pull - тягнути

reduction - скорочення

to achieve - досягати

in series - серія, послідовно

beyond - вище, понад

yield point - точка плинності металу

to retain - зберігати, утримувати

to bend - гнути

shearing - обрізка, відрізання

edge - край

to grip - схоплювати

lower die - нижній штамп

upper die - верхній штамп

forming operation - операція штампування

dimension - вимірювання, розміри

required - необхідний

increase - збільшення

open-die forging - кування у відкритому штампі (підкладному)

hammering - кування, бити

within - всередині, у межах

to enclose - укладати

rod - прут, стрижень

bar - прут, брусок

involved - включений

tolerance - допуск

upsetting - висадка, видавлювання

blow - удар

coining - карбування

imprint - відбиток

clamp - затиск

to hit - вдаряти

General understanding:

1. How can the reduction of diameter in wire drawing be achieved?

2. What is sheet metal forming and where it can be used?

3. What is close-die forging?

4. What is forging?

5. What are the types of forging?

6. What types of hammers are used now?

7. Where are coining and upsetting used?

8. What process is used in wire production?

9. Describe the process of making the roof of a car.

Exercise 2.3. Find the following word combinations in the text:

1. протягування металу через фильеру

2. волочіння дроту

3. зменшення діаметра

4. товщина листа

5. розтягувати вище крапки плинності

6. зберегти нову форму

7. краю відрізаються

8. кінцеві розміри

9. зменшити необхідне зусилля

10. збільшити пластичність металу

11. повітряні або парові молоти

12. сила і швидкість штампування

13. усередині стінок двох штампів

14. обробна обробка

15. малі допуски

Exercise 2.4. Translate into English:

1. При волочіння дроту діаметр отвору волочильне дошки щораз зменшується.

2. Штампування листового металу включає в себе ковку, вигин і обрізання.

3. Невелика деформація листа при розтягуванні допомагає зберегти нову форму деталі.

4. Зміна форми при штампуванні проводиться шляхом стиснення між двома штампами.

5. Краї листа при штампуванні відрізаються для отримання кінцевих розмірів.

6. При проковки деталь повинна бути гарячою для зменшення необхідних зусиль і збільшення пластичності металу.

7. Після кування в закритих штампах деталі не вимагають великої механічної обробки.

8. При карбуванні деформація металу невелика і відбиток формується на поверхні металу.

9. Висадка використовується для виготовлення голівок цвяхів і болтів.

Text C: «METALWORKING AND METAL PROPETIES»


An important feature of hot working is that it provides the improvement of mechanical properties of metals. Hot-working (hot-rolling or hot-forging) eliminates porosity, directionality, and segregation that are usually present in metals. Hot-worked products have better ductility and toughness than the unworked casting. During the forging of a bar, the grains of the metal become greatly elongated in the direction of flow. As a result, the toughness of the metal is greatly improved in this direction and weakened in directions transverse to the flow. Good forging makes the flow lines in the finished part oriented so as to lie in the direction of maximum stress when the part is placed in service.

The ability of a metal to resist thinning and fracture during cold-working operations plays an important role in alloy selection. In operations that involve stretching, the best alloys are those which grow stronger with strain (are strain hardening) - for example, the copper-zinc alloy, brass, used for cartridges and the aluminum-magnesium alloys in beverage cans, which exhibit greater strain hardening.

Fracture of the workpiece during forming can result from inner flaws in the metal. These flaws often consist of nonmetallic inclusions such as oxides or sulfides that are trapped in the metal during refining. Such inclusions can be avoided by proper manufacturing procedures.

The ability of different metals to undergo strain varies. The change of the shape after one forming operation is often limited by the tensile ductility of the metal. Metals such as copper and aluminum are more ductile in such operations than other metals.

Vocabulary

feature - риса, особливість

to provide - забезпечувати

improvement - поліпшення

property - властивість

eliminate - ліквідувати, виключати

porosity - пористість

directional - спрямований

to segregate - розділяти

casting - виливок

elongated - подовжений

to weaken - слабшати, послаблювати

transverse - поперечний

flow - течія, потік

finished - оброблений

thinning - потоншення

fracture - руйнування

strain hardening - деформаційне зміцнення

brass - латунь

beverage - напій

can - консервна банка

to exhibit - виявляти

inner - внутрішній

flaws - недоліки, дефекти кристалічної решітки

inclusion - включення

trapped - зд. укладений

refining - очищати, очищення

to avoid - уникати

to undergo - піддаватися

tensile ductility - пластичність при розтягуванні

General understanding:

1. What process improves the mechanical properties of metals?

2. What new properties have hot-worked products?

3. How does the forging of a bar affect the grains of the metal? What is the result of this?

4. How are the flow lines in the forged metal oriented and how does it affect the strength of the forged part?

5. What are the best strain-hardening alloys? Where can we use them?

6. What are the inner flaws in the metal?

7. Can a metal fracture because of the inner flaw?

8. What limits the change of the shape during forming operations?

Exercise 2.5. Find the following in the text:

1. важлива особливість гарячої обробки

2. поліпшення механічних властивостей металу

3. необроблена виливок

4. напрям максимальної напруги

5. здатність чинити опір потоншення і руйнування

6. проявляти більшу деформаційне зміцнення

7. руйнування деталі при штампуванні

8. внутрішні дефекти в металі

9. неметалеві включення

10. здатність металів піддаватися деформації

11. обмежується пластичністю металу при розтягуванні

Exercise 2.6. Translate into English:

1. Гаряча обробка металу покращує його механічні властивості і усуває пористість і внутрішні дефекти.

2. Подовження зерен у напрямку плинності при куванні значно покращує міцність металу в цьому напрямку і зменшує його міцність у поперечному.

3. Хороша проковування орієнтує лінії плинності в напрямку максимальної напруги.

4. Деформаційне зміцнення металу при холодній обробці дуже важливо для отримання металів з ​​покращеними властивостями.

5. Внутрішні дефекти металу - це неметалеві включення типу оксидів або сульфідів.

6. Зміна форми при штампуванні металевих деталей обмежується пластичністю металу при розтягуванні.


FAMOUS SCIENTISTS


Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov was a famous Russian writer, chemist, and astronomer who made ​​a lot in literature and science.

Lomonosov was born on November 19, 1711, in Denisovka (now Lomonosov), near Archangelsk, and studied at the University of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. After studying in Germany at the Universities of Marburg and Freiberg, Lomonosov returned to St. Petersburg in 1745 to teach chemistry and built a teaching and research laboratory there four years later.

Lomonosov is often called the founder of Russian science. He was an innovator in many fields. As a scientist he rejected the phlogiston theory of matter commonly accepted at the time and he anticipated the kinetic theory of gases. He regarded heat as a form of motion, suggested the wave theory of light, and stated the idea of conservation of matter. Lomonosov was the first person to record the freezing of mercury and to observe the atmosphere of Venus during a solar transit.

Interested in the development of Russian education, Lomonosov helped to found Moscow State University in 1755, and in the same year wrote a grammar that reformed the Russian literary language by combining Old Church Slavonic with modern language. In 1760 he published the first history of Russia. He also revived the art of Russian mosaic and built a mosaic and colored-glass factory. Most of his achievements, however, were unknown outside Russia.


UNIT3

MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


I. Text A: «Materials science and technology»,

Text B: «Mechanical Properties of Materials».

II. Famous people of science and technology: Igor Sikorskly, Andrey Tupolev.


Text A: «MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Of MATERIALS»


Materials Science and Technology is the study of materials and how they can be fabricated to meet the needs of modern technology. Using the laboratory techniques and knowledge of physics, chemistry, and metallurgy, scientists are finding new ways of using metals, plastics and other materials.

Engineers must know how materials respond to external forces, such as tension, compression, torsion, bending, and shear. All materials respond to these forces by elastic deformation. That is, the materials return their original size and form when the external force disappears. The materials may also have permanent deformation or they may fracture. The results of external forces are creep and fatigue.

Compression is a pressure causing a decrease in volume. When a material is subjected to a bending, shearing, or torsion (twisting) force, both tensile and compressive forces are simultaneously at work. When a metal bar is bent, one side of it is stretched and subjected to a tensional force, and the other side is compressed.

Tension is a pulling force; for example, the force in a cable holding a weight. Under tension, a material usually stretches, returning to its original length if the force does not exceed the material's elastic limit. Under larger tensions, the material does not return completely to its original condition, and under greater forces the material ruptures.

Fatigue is the growth of cracks under stress. It occurs when a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated or cyclic stress, such as vibration. Even when the maximum stress never exceeds the elastic limit, failure of the material can occur even after a short time. No deformation is seen during fatigue, but small localized cracks develop and propagate through the material until the remaining cross-sectional area cannot support the maximum stress of the cyclic force. Knowledge of tensile stress, elastic limits, and the resistance of materials to creep and fatigue are of basic importance in engineering.

Creep is a slow, permanent deformation that results from a steady force acting on a material. Materials at high temperatures usually suffer from this deformation. The gradual loosening of bolts and the deformation of components of machines and engines are all the examples of creep. In many cases the slow deformation stops because deformation eliminates the force causing the creep. Creep extended over a long time finally leads to the rupture of the material.

Vocabulary

bar - брусок, прут

completely - повністю, абсолютно

compression - стиснення

creep - повзучість

cross-sectional area - площа поперечного перерізу

cyclic stress - циклічне напруга

decrease - зменшення

elastic deformation - пружна деформація

elastic limit - межа пружності

exceed - перевищувати

external forces - зовнішні сили

fatigue - втома металу

fracture - перелом, злам

loosen - послаблювати, розхитувати

permanent deformation - постійна деформація

remaining - залишився

shear - зріз

simultaneously - одночасно

to stretch - розтягувати

technique - методи

tension - напруженість

to propagate - розповсюджуватися

to bend - гнути, зігнути

to extend - розширювати, продовжуватися

to meet the needs - відповідати вимогам

to occur - відбуватися

to respond - відповідати реагувати

to suffer - страждати

torsion - кручення

twisting - закручування, вигин

volume - обсяг, кількість

rupture - розрив

General understanding:

1. What are the external forces causing the elastic deformation of materials? Describe those forces that change the form and size of materials.

2. What are the results of external forces?

3. What kinds of deformation are the combinations of tension and compression?

4. What is the result of tension? What happens if the elastic limit of material is exceeded under tension?

5. What do we call fatigue? When does it occur? What are the results of fatigue?

6. What do we call creep? When does this type of permanent deformation take place? What are the results of creep?

Exercise 3.1. Find the following in the text:

1. відповідати вимогам сучасної технології

2. використовуючи лабораторні методи

3. нові способи використання металів

4. стиск, розтяг, вигин, крутіння, зріз

5. повертати початковий розмір і форму

6. зовнішня сила

7. постійна деформація

8. зменшення обсягу

9. розтягують і стискають сили

10. перевищувати межу пружності матеріалу

11. повторювані циклічні напруги

12. руйнування матеріалу

13. розвиток і поширення дрібних тріщин

14. опір матеріалів повзучості і втоми

Exercise 3.2. Translate into English the following sentences:

1. Пружна деформація - це реакція всіх матеріалів на зовнішні сили, такі, як розтяг, стиск, скручування, вигин і зріз.

2. Втома і повзучість матеріалів є результатом зовнішніх сил.

3. Зовнішні сили викликають постійну деформацію і руйнування матеріалу.

4. Розтягують і стискають сили працюють одночасно, коли ми згинає або скручуємо матеріал.

5. Розтягування матеріалу вище межі його пружності дає постійну деформацію або руйнування.

6. Коли деталь працює довгий час під циклічними напругами, в ній з'являються невеликі зростаючі тріщини через втому металу.

7. Повзучість - це повільне зміна розміру деталі під напругою.

Text В: «Mechanical Properties of Materials»


Density (specific weight) is the amount of mass in a unit volume. It is measured in kilograms per cubic metre. The density of water is 1000 kg / m 3 but most materials have a higher density and sink in water. Aluminium alloys, with typical densities around 2800 kg / m 3 are considerably less dense than steels, which have typical densities around 7800 kg / m 3. Density is important in any application where the material must not be heavy.

Stiffness (rigidity) is a measure of the resistance to deformation such as stretching or bending. The Young modulus is a measure of the resistance to simple stretching or compression. It is the ratio of the applied force per unit area (stress) to the fractional elastic deformation (strain). Stiffness is important when a rigid structure is to be made.

Strength is the force per unit area (stress) that a material can support without failing. The units are the same as those of Stiffness, MN / m 2, but in this case the deformation is irreversible. The yield strength is the stress at which a material first deforms plastically. For a metal the yield strength may be less than the fracture strength, which is the stress at which it breaks. Many materials have a higher strength in compression than in tension.

Ductility is the ability of a material to deform without breaking. One of the great advantages of metals is their ability to be formed into the shape that is needed, such as car body parts. Materials that are not ductile are brittle. Ductile materials can absorb energy by deformation but brittle materials cannot.

Toughness is the resistance of a material to breaking when there is a crack in it. For a material of given toughness, the stress at which it will fail is inversely proportional to the square root of the size of the largest defect present. Toughness is different from strength: the toughest steels, for example, are different from the ones with highest tensile strength. Brittle materials have low toughness: glass can be broken along a chosen line by first scratching it with a diamond. Composites can be designed to have considerably greater toughness than their constituent materials. The example of a very tough composite is fiberglass that is very flexible and strong.

Creep resistance is the resistance to a gradual permanent change of shape, and it becomes especially important at higher temperatures. A successful research has been made ​​in materials for machine parts that operate at high temperatures and under high tensile forces without gradually extending, for example the parts of plane engines.

Vocabulary

ability - здатність

amount - кількість

absorb - поглинати

amount - кількість

application - застосування

brittle - крихкий, ламкий

car body - кузов автомобіля

constituent - компонент

crack - тріщина

creep resistance - стійкість до повзучості

definition - визначення

density - щільність

ductility - гнучкість, еластичність

failure - пошкодження

gradual - поступовий

permanent - постійний

rigid - жорсткий

to sink - тонути

square root - квадратний корінь

stiffness - жорсткість

strain - навантаження, напруга, деформація

strength - міцність

stress - тиск, напруга

tensile strength - міцність на розрив

toughness - міцність, стійкість

yield strength - міцність плинності

Young modulus - модуль Юнга

General understanding:

1. What is the density of a material?

2. What are the units of density? Where low density is needed?

3. What are the densities of water, aluminium and steel?

4. A measure of what properties is stiffness? When stiffness is important?

5. What is Young modulus?

6. What is strength?

7. What is yield strength? Why fracture strength is always greater than yield strength?

8. What is ductility? Give the examples of ductile materials. Give the examples of brittle materials.

8. What is toughness?

9. What properties of steel are necessary for the manufacturing of: a) springs, b) car body parts, c) bolts and nuts, d) cutting tools?

10. Where is aluminium mostly used because of its light weight?

Exercise 3.3. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:

1. кількість маси в одиниці об'єму

2. кілограм на кубічний метр

3. міра опору деформації

4. ставлення прикладеної сили на одиницю площі до часткової пружною деформації

5. жорстка конструкція

6. міцність на стиск

7. здатність матеріалу деформуватися не руйнуючись

8. поглинати енергію шляхом деформації

9. обернено пропорційно квадрату розміру дефекту

10. поступова зміна форми

11. підвищені температури

12. високі розтягуючі зусилля

Exercise 3.4. Translate into English the following:

1. Щільність вимірюється у кілограмах на кубічний метр.

2. Більшість матеріалів мають більш високу щільність, ніж вода і тонуть у воді.

3. Щільність матеріалу дуже важлива, особливо в авіації.

4. Модуль Юнга - відношення прикладеної сили до пружної деформації даного матеріалу.

5. Чим більше метал жорсткий, тим менш він деформується під навантаженням.

6. Коли метал розтягують, він спочатку тече, тобто пластично деформується.

7. Свинець, мідь, алюміній і золото - ковкі метали.

8. Опір повзучості є дуже важливою властивістю матеріалів, які використовуються в авіаційних моторах.


«FAMOUS PEOPLE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING»


Sikorsky Igor Ivanovich was a well-known aircraft engineer and manufacturer.

Sikorsky was born in 1889 in Kiev, in the Ukraine, and got his education at the naval college in St. Petersburg, and later in Kiev and Paris. He was the first to make experiments in helicopter design. In 1913 he designed, built, and flew the first successful aeroplane. Later he built military aircrafts for Russia and France.

In 1919 Sikorsky moved to the United States and later helped to organize an aircraft company that produced a series of multiengine flying boats for commercial service. Sikorsky became an American citizen in 1928. In the late 1930s he returned to developing helicopters and produced the first successful helicopter in the west. Helicopters designed by Sikorsky were used mostly by the US Army Air Forces during World War II. He died in 1972 at the age of 83.

Tupolev Andrey Nikolayevich, famous aircraft designer, was born in 1888. He graduated from the Moscow Higher Technical School, where he designed the first Russian wind tunnel. He helped to found the Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute in 1918 and later worked as the head of its design bureau. During his career he directed the design of more than 100 military and commercial aircraft, including the TU-2 and TU-4 bombers used in the World War II. In 1955 he designed the TU-104, the first passenger jet airliner. His TU-144 supersonic jet liner began its commercial passenger flights in 1977.


UNIT 4

MACHINE-TOOLS


I. Text A: «Machine-tools», Text B: «Lathe»,

Text C: «Milling, boring, drilling machines. Shapers and Planers », Text D:« Dies »

II. Famous people of science and technology: George Stephenson, Robert Slephenson.


Text A: «MACHINE-TOOIS»


Machine-tools are used to shape metals and other materials. The material to be shaped is called the workpiece. Most machine-tools are now electrically driven. Machine-tools with electrical drive are faster and more accurate than hand tools: they were an important element in the development of mass-production processes, as they allowed individual parts to be made ​​in large numbers so as to be interchangeable.

All machine-tools have facilities for holding both the workpiece and the tool, and for accurately controlling the movement of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. Most machining operations generate large amounts of heat, and use cooling fluids (usually a mixture of water and oils) for cooling and lubrication.

Machine-tools usually work materials mechanically but other machining methods have been developed lately. They include chemical machining, spark erosion to machine very hard materials to any shape by means of a continuous high-voltage spark (discharge) between an electrode and a workpiece. Other machining methods include drilling using ultrasound, and cutting by means of a laser beam. Numerical control of machine-tools and flexible manufacturing systems have made ​​it possible for complete systems of machine-tools to be used flexibly for the manufacture of a range of products .

Vocabulary:

machine-tools - верстати

electrically driven - з електроприводом

shape - форма

workpiece - деталь

accurate - точний

development - розвиток

to allow - дозволяти, дозволяти

interchangeable - взаємозамінний

facility - пристосування

relative-відносний

amount - кількість

fluid - рідина

to lubricate - змащувати

spark erosion - електроіскрових обробка

discharge - розряд

by means of - за допомогою

beam - промінь

drilling - свердління

flexible - гнучкий

range - асортимент, діапазон


Text B: «LATHE»


Lathe is still the most important machine-tool. It produces parts of circular cross-section by turning the workpiece on its axis and cutting its surface with a sharp stationary tool. The tool may be moved sideways to produce a cylindrical part and moved towards the workpiece to control the depth of cut. Nowadays all lathes are power-driven by electric motors. That allows continuous rotation of the workpiece at a variety of speeds. The modern lathe is driven by means of a headstock supporting a hollow spindle on accurate bearings and carrying either a chuck or a faceplate, to which the workpiece is clamped. The movement of the tool, both along the lathe bed and at right angle to it, can be accurately controlled, so enabling a part to be machined to close tolerances. Modern lathes are often under numerical control.

Vocabulary:

lathe - токарний верстат

circular cross-section - круглий поперечний переріз

surface - поверхня

stationary - нерухомий, стаціонарний

sideways - у бік

variety - різноманітність, різновид

depth - глибина

headstock - передня бабка

spindle - шпиндель

chuck - затиск, патрон

faceplate - планшайба

lathe bed - станина верстата

to enable - давати можливість

tolerance - допуск

General understanding:

1. What are machine-tools used for?

2. How are most machine-tools driven nowadays?

3. What facilities have all machine-tools?

4. How are the cutting tool and the workpiece cooled during machining?

5. What other machining methods have been developed lately?

6. What systems are used now for the manufacture of a range of products without the use of manual labor?

7. What parts can be made ​​with lathes?

8. How can the cutting tool be moved on a lathe?

9. How is the workpiece clamped in a lathe?

10. Can we change the speeds of workpiece rotation in a lathe?

11. What is numerical control of machine tools used for?

Exercise 4.1. Find English equivalents in the text:

1. оброблюваний матеріал

2. електропривод

3. більш точний

4. окремі деталі

5. процес масового виробництва

6. пристосування для тримання різця і деталі

7. операції по механічній обробці деталі

8. високовольтний розряд

9. свердління ультразвуком

10. різання за допомогою лазерного променя

11. гнучкі виробничі системи

12. деталі круглого перерізу

13. повертати деталь навколо її осі

14. рухати в бік, рухати у напрямку до деталі

15. глибина різання

16. безперервне обертання деталі

17. рух різця вздовж станини

Exercise 4.2. Translate into English:

1. Токарний верстат дозволяє виробляти деталі круглого перерізу.

2. Деталь затискається в патроні або на планшайбі токарного верстата.

3. Різець може рухатися як уздовж станини, так і під прямим кутом до неї.

4. Сучасні токарні верстати часто мають цифрове управління.


Text З: «MILLING MACHINE»


In a milling machine the cutter (фреза) is a circular device with a series of cutting edges on its circumference. The workpiece is held on a table that controls the feed against the cutter. The table has three possible movements: longitudinal, horizontal, and vertical; in some cases it can also rotate. Milling machines are the most versatile of all machine tools. Flat or contoured surfaces may be machined with excellent finish and accuracy. Angles, slots, gear teeth and cuts can be made ​​by using various shapes of cutters.

Drilling and Boring Machines

To drill a hole usually hole-making machine-tools are used. They can drill a hole according to some specification, they can enlarge it, or they can cut threads for a screw or to create an accurate size or a smooth finish of a hole.

Drilling machines (свердлильні верстати) are different in size and function, from portable drills to radial drilling machines, multispindle units, automatic production machines, and deep-hole-drilling machines.

Boring (розточування) is a process that enlarges holes previously drilled, usually with a rotating single-point cutter held on a boring bar and fed against a stationary workpiece.

Shapers and Planers

The shaper (поперечно-стругальний верстат) is used mainly to produce different flat surfaces. The tool slides against the stationary workpiece and cuts on one stroke, returns to its starting position, and then cuts on the next stroke after a slight lateral displacement. In general, the shaper can make any surface having straight-line elements. It uses only one cutting-tool and is relatively slow, because the return stroke is idle. That is why the shaper is seldom found on a mass production line. It is, however, valuable for tool production and for workshops where flexibility is important and relative slowness is unimportant.

The planer (поздовжньо-стругальний верстат) is the largest of the reciprocating machine tools. It differs from the shaper, which moves a tool past a fixed workpiece because the planer moves the workpiece to expose a new section to the tool. Like the shaper, the planer is intended to produce vertical, horizontal, or diagonal cuts. It is also possible to mount several tools at one time in any or all tool holders of a planer to execute multiple simultaneous cuts.

Grinders

Grinders (шліфувальні верстати) remove metal by a rotating abrasive wheel. The wheel is composed of many small grains of abrasive, bonded together, with each grain acting as a miniature cutting tool. The process gives very smooth and accurate finishes. Only a small amount of material is removed at each pass of the wheel, so grinding machines require fine wheel regulation. The pressure of the wheel against the workpiece is usually very light, so that grinding can be carried out on fragile materials that cannot be machined by other conventional devices.

Vocabulary:

milling machine - фрезерний верстат

series - серія, ряд

cutting edge - ріжучий край, вістря

circumference - коло

to feed - подавати

longitudinal - поздовжній

horizontal - горизонтальний

vertical - вертикальний

versatile - універсальний

flat - плаский

contoured - контурний

angle - кут

slot - проріз, паз

gear teeth - зуби шестірні

drill - дриль, свердло, свердлити

hole - отвір

to enlarge - збільшувати

thread - різьблення

portable - портативний

unit - одиниця, ціле, вузол

previously - раніше

to slide - ковзати

stroke - хід

lateral - бічний

displacement - зміщення

straight - прямий

idle - на холостому ходу

workshop - цех, майстерня

to mount - кріпити

holder - тримач

to execute - виконувати

simultaneous - одночасний

multiple - численний

grinder - шліфувальний верстат

wheel - коло, колесо

bonded - скріплений

to remove - видаляти

pass - прохід

fine - точний

conventional - звичайний

device - пристрій, прилад

fragile - тендітний

General understanding:

1. What is the shape of a cutter in a milling machine?

2. What moves in a milling machine, a table or a cutter?

3. What possible movements has the table of a milling machine?

4. What kind of surfaces and shapes may be machined by a milling machine?

5. What can we use a drilling machine for?

6. What kinds of drilling machines exist?

7. What is rotated while boring, a cutter or a work-piece?

8. Describe the work of a shaper (planer).

9. What must be done to execute multiple simultaneous cuts on a planer?

10. What is the working tool in a grinder?

11. Can we obtain a very smooth surface after grinding and why? 12. Can we grind fragile materials and why?

Exercise 4.3. Translate into English:

1. Токарний верстат все ще залишається найважливішим верстатом.

2. Всі сучасні токарні верстати обладнані електроприводами.

3. Рух інструменту контролюється з високою точністю.

4. Електропривод дозволяє обробляти заготовку на різних швидкостях.


Text D: «DIES»


Dies are tools used for the shaping solid materials, especially those employed in the pressworking of cold metals.

In presswork, dies are used in pairs. The smaller die, or punch, fits inside the larger die, called the matrix or, simply, the die. The metal to be formed, usually a sheet, is placed over the matrix on the press. The punch is mounted on the press and moves down by hydraulic or mechanical force.

A number of different forms of dies are employed for different operations. The simplest are piercing dies (пробивної штамп), used for punching holes. Bending and folding dies are designed to make single or compound bends. A combination die is designed to perform more than one of the above operations in one stroke of the press. A progressive die permits successive forming operations with the same die.

In coining, metal is forced to flow into two matching dies, each of which bears a engraved design.

Wiredrawing Dies

In the manufacture of wire, a drawplate (волочильна дошка) is usually employed. This tool is a metal plate containing a number of holes, successively less in diameter and known as wire dies. A piece of metal is pulled through the largest die to make a coarse wire. This wire is then drawn through the smaller hole, and then the next, until the wire is reduced to the desired measurement. Wiredrawing dies are made ​​from extremely hard materials, such as tungsten carbide or diamonds.

Thread-Cutting Dies

For cutting threads on bolts or on the outside of pipes, a thread-cutting die (різьбонарізна плашка) is used. It is usually made ​​of hardened steel in the form of a round plate with a hole in the centre. The hole has a thread. To cut an outside thread, the die is lubricated with oil and simply screwed onto an unthreaded bolt or piece of pipe, the same way a nut is screwed onto a bolt. The corresponding tool for cutting an inside thread, such as that inside a nut, is called a tap (мітчик).

Vocabulary:

chip - стружка

sharp - гострий

friction - тертя

content - зміст

range - діапазон

inexpensive - недорогий

to permit - дозволяти, дозволяти

common - звичайний

tungsten - вольфрам

ingredient - інгредієнт

diamond - алмаз

tips - наконечники

ceramic - керамічний

truing - редагування, наводка, заточка

die - матриця, штамп

matrix - матриця

to employ - застосовувати

to pierce - протикати, проколювати

to punch - пробивати отвір

matching - поєднується, парний

coarse - грубий

wire - дріт

to draw - тягти, волочити

thread - різьблення

hardened - загартований

to lubricate - змащувати

to screw - прикручувати

nut - гайка

outside - зовнішній, зовнішній

inside - всередині, внутрішній

Exercise 4.4. Find English equivalents in the text:

1. видаляти металеву стружку

2. гострий ріжучий край

3. вміст вуглецю

4. ріжуча здатність

5. сталь для швидкісного різання

6. правка шліфувальних кіл

7. гідравлічне або механічний тиск

8. різні форми штампів

Exercise 4.5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

1. Всі різці і фрези повинні мати гостру ріжучу кромку.

2. Під час різання ріжучий інструмент і деталь мають високу температуру і повинні охолоджуватися.

3. Вуглецеві стали часто використовуються для виготовлення різців тому, що вони недорогі.

4. Швидкорізальні сталі містять вольфрам, хром і ванадій.

5. Алмази використовуються для різання абразивних матеріалів і чистової обробки поверхні твердих матеріалів.

6. Для різних операцій використовують різні штампи.

7. Волочильні дошки для дроту робляться з дуже твердих матеріалів.

8. Різьбонарізні плашки і мітчики використовуються для нарізки різьби зовні і всередині.


FAMOUS PEOPLE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


George Stephenson

George Stephenson was a British inventor and engineer. He is famous for building the first practical railway locomotive.

Stephenson was born in 1781 in Wylam, near Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland. During his youth he worked as a fireman and later as an engineer in the coal mines of Newcastle. He invented one of the first miner's safety lamps independently of the British inventor Humphry Davy. Stephenson's early locomotives were used to carry loads in coal mines, and in 1823 he established a factory at Newcastle for their manufacture. In 1829 he designed a locomotive known as the Rocket, which could carry both loads and passengers at a greater speed than any locomotive constructed at that time. The success of the Rocket was the beginning of the construction of locomotives and the laying of railway lines.

Robert Stephenson, the son of George Stephenson was a British civil engineer. He is mostly well-known known for the construction of several notable bridges.

He was born in 1803 in Willington Quay, near Newcastle upon Tyne, and educated in Newcastle and at the University of Edinburgh. In 1829 he assisted his father in constructing a locomotive known as the Rocket, and four years later he was appointed construction engineer of the Birmingham and London Railway, completed in 1838. Stephenson built several famous bridges, including the Victoria Bridge in Northumberland, the Britannia Bridge in Wales, two bridges across the Nile in Damietta in Egypt and the Victoria Bridge in Montreal, Canada. Stephenson was a Member of Parliament from 1847 until his death in 1859.


UNIT 5

PLASTICS


I. Text A: «Plastics», Text B: «Types of plastics», Text C: «Composite Materials»

II. Famous People of Science: Alfred Bernhard Nobel.


Text A: «PLASTICS»

Plastics are non-metallic, synthetic, carbon-based materials. They can be moulded, shaped, or extruded into flexible sheets, films, or fibres. Plastics are synthetic polymers. Polymers consist of long-chain molecules made ​​of large numbers of identical small molecules (monomers). The chemical nature of a plastic is defined by the monomer (repeating unit) that makes up the chain of the polymer. Polyethene is a polyolefin; its monomer unit is ethene (formerly called ethylene). Other categories are acrylics (such as polymethylmethacrylate), styrenes (such as polystyrene), vinys (such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC)), polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides (such as nylons), polyethers, acetals, phenolics, cellulosics, and amino resins . The molecules can be either natural - like cellulose, wax, and natural rubber - or synthetic - in polyethene and nylon. In co-polymers, more than one monomer is used.

The giant molecules of which polymers consist may be linear, branched, or cross-linked, depending on the plastic. Linear and branched molecules are thermoplastic (soften when heated), whereas cross-linked molecules are thermosetting (harden when heated).

Most plastics are synthesized from organic chemicals or from natural gas or coal. Plastics are light-weight compared to metals and are good electrical insulators. The best insulators now are epoxy resins and teflon. Teflon or polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) was first made ​​in 1938 and was produced commercially in 1950.

Plastics can be classified into several broad types.

1. Thermoplastics soften on heating, then harden again when cooled. Thermoplastic molecules are also coiled and because of this they are flexible and easily stretched.

Typical example of thermoplastics is polystyrene. Polystyrene resins are characterized by high resistance to chemical and mechanical stresses at low temperatures and by very low absorption of water. These properties make the polystyrenes especially suitable for radio-frequency insulation and for parts used at low temperatures in refrigerators and in airplanes. PET (polyethene terephthalate) is a transparent thermoplastic used for soft-drinks bottles. Thermoplastics are also viscoelastic, that is, they flow (creep) under stress. Examples are polythene, polystyrene and PVC.

2. Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) do not soften when heated, and with strong heating they decompose. In most thermosets final cross-linking, which fixes the molecules, takes place after the plastic has already been formed.

Thermosetting plastics have a higher density than thermoplastics. They are less flexible, more difficult to stretch, and are less subjected to creep. Examples of thermosetting plastics include urea-formaldehyde or polyurethane and epoxy resins, most polyesters, and phenolic polymers such as phenol-formaldehyde resin.

3. Elastomers are similar to thermoplastics but have sufficient cross-linking between molecules to prevent stretching and creep.

Vocabulary:

carbon - вуглець

flexible - гнучкий

fibre - волокно, нитка

chain - ланцюг

identical - однаковий, ідентичний

molecule - молекула

branch - розгалужений

to synthesize - синтезувати

chemicals - хімічні речовини

to soften - пом'якшувати

cellulose - клітковина, целюлоза

wax - віск

thermosetting plastics - термореактивні пластмаси

to harden - робити твердим

coil - спіраль

stretched - розтягнутий

transparent - прозорий

rubber - гума, каучук

to decompose - розкладатися

soft-drink - безалкогольний напій

to subject - піддавати

polyurethane - поліуретан

resin - смола

similar - подібний, подібний

sufficient - достатній

to prevent - запобігати

General understanding

1. What is the definition of plastics?

2. What is the basic chemical element in plastics formula?

3. What do polymers consist of?

4. What are long-chain molecules made ​​of?

5. What are the main types of polymers?

6. Give examples of plastics belonging to these types.

7. What plastics are the best electrical insulators?

8. Describe the difference between thermoplastics and thermosets.

9. What are the main types of structures of polymers?

10. What are the most important properties of plastics?

11. Give the examples of various uses of plastics because of their characteristic properties.

Exercise 5.1. Find English equivalents in the text:

1. синтетичні полімери

2. молекули з довгими ланцюгами

3. характерні властивості полімеру

4. синтезуються з органічних хімічних речовин

5. хороший електричний ізолятор

6. розм'якшуватися при нагріванні

7. тверднути при охолодженні

8. гнучкий і легко розтяжний

9. текти під навантаженням

10. більш висока щільність

11. менш схильні до повзучості

12. достатня взаємозв'язок між молекулами

Exercise 5.2. Translate into English:

1. Довгі ланцюги молекул полімерів складаються з однакових невеликих молекул мономерів.

2. Сополімери складаються з двох і більше мономерів.

3. Пластмаси можна одержувати у вигляді листів, тонких плівок, волокон або гранул.

4. Молекули полімерів можуть бути лінійними, розгалуженим чи з поперечними зв'язками.

5. Мала вага пластмас і добрі електроізоляційні властивості дозволяють використовувати їх в радіоелектроніці і електроприладах, а також замість металів.

6. Молекули термопластів мають звиту форму і, тому, вони гнучкі і легко розтяжним.

7. Еластоміри мають велике число поперечних зв'язків між молекулами.

Text В: «TYPES OF PLASTICS»


1. Epoxy resin.

Epoxy resin is a thermoset plastic containing epoxy groups. Epoxy resin hardens when it is mixed with solidifier and plasticizer. Plasticizers make a polymer more flexible.

Epoxy resins have outstanding adhesion, toughness, and resistance to attack from chemicals. They form strong bonds and have excellent electrical insulation properties. Large, complex, void-free castings can be made ​​from them. They are also used as adhesives, and in composites for boat building and sports equipment.

2. PVC (polyvinyl chloride)

PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is a thermoplastic polymer made ​​from vinyl chloride is a colourless solid with outstanding resistance to water, alcohols, and concentrated acids and alkalis. It is obtainable as granules, solutions, lattices, and pastes. When compounded with plasticizers, it yields a flexible material more durable than rubber. It is widely used for cable and wire insulation, in chemical plants, and in the manufacture of protective garments. Blow moulding of unplasticized PVC produces clear, tough bottles which do not affect the flavour of their contents. PVC is also used for production of tubes or pipes.

3. Polystyrene.

Polystyrene is a thermoplastic produced by the polymerization of styrene. The electrical insulating properties of polystyrene are outstandingly good and it is relatively unaffected by water. Typical applications include light fixtures, toys, bottles, lenses, capacitor dielectrics, medical syringes, and light-duty industrial components. Extruded sheets of polystyrene are widely used for packaging, envelope windows, and photographic film. Its resistance to impact can be improved by the addition of rubber modifiers. Polystyrene can be readily foamed; the resulting foamed polystyrene is used extensively for packaging.

4. Polythene (polyethene, polyethylene)

Polythene (polyethene, polyethylene) is a plastic made ​​from ethane. It is one of the most widely used important thermoplastic polymers. It was first developed by the polymerization of ethane at a pressure of 2,000 bar at 200 ° C. This produced low-density polythene (LDPE). A relatively high-density form (HDPE) was synthesized in the 1950s using a complex catalyst. Polythene is a white waxy solid with very low density, reasonable strength and toughness, but low stiffness. It is easily moulded and has a wide range of uses in containers, packaging, pipes, coatings, and insulation.

Vocabulary:

adhesion - прилипання

adhesive - клей

bond - зв'язки, узи

insulation - ізоляція

casting - лиття

void - порожнеча

solid - тверде тіло, твердий

acid - кислота

alkali - луг

to obtain - діставати, отримувати

granule - гранула

solution - розчин

lattices - латекси

paste - паста

yield - вихід

durable - міцний

rubber - гума, каучук

garment - предмети одягу

lens-лінза

capacitor - ел. конденсатор

syringe - шприц

light-duty - невідповідальний

envelope - зд. обрамлення

impact - удар

improved - покращений

modifiers - модифікатори

addition - додавання

readily - легко, з готовністю

foam - піна

catalyst - каталізатор

wax - віск

reasonable - прийнятний, непоганий

coating - шар, покриття

General understanding:

1. What are the types of plastics?

2. What are the features of the epoxy resin?

3. What is epoxy resin used for?

4. What is PVC usually used for?

5. What are the typical applications of polystyrene?

6. When was polyethylen synthesized?

7. Under what conditions is polyethylen synthesized?

8. What sorts of polyethylen can be synthesized?

Exercise 5.3. Translate into Russian:

1. Polythene is a plastic made ​​from ethane.

2. Epoxy resins have outstanding adhesion, toughness and resistance to attack from chemicals.

3. PVC is a colourless solid with outstanding resistance to water, alcohols, and concentrated acids and alkalis.

4. Polystyrene is a thermoplastic produced by the polymerization of styrene.

5. Polythene is a white waxy solid with very low density, reasonable strength and toughness but low stiffness.

Exercise 5.4. Translate into English:

1. Епоксидна смола твердне коли змішується з затверджувачем і пластифікатором.

2. Епоксидні смоли використовуються в якості клею, а з добавками - у будівництві човнів та спортивного спорядження.

3. ПВХ - безбарвне тверда речовина з видатною стійкістю до дії води, спиртів, концентрованих кислот і лугів.

4. ПВХ широко використовується при виробництві ізоляції для проводів.

5. Видувки непластифікованого ПВХ використовується при виробництві прозорих пляшок для напоїв.

6. Полістирол легко спінюється й використовується для упаковки.

7. Поліетилен - воскоподібне речовина білого кольору з дуже низькою щільністю і малою жорсткістю.


Text З: «COMPOSITE MATERIALS»


The combinations of two or more different materials are called composite materials. They usually have unique mechanical and physical properties because they combine the best properties of different materials. For example, a fibre-glass reinforced plastic combines the high strength of thin glass fibres with the ductility and chemical resistance of plastic. Nowadays composites are being used for structures such as bridges, boat-building etc.

Composite materials usually consist of synthetic fibres within a matrix, a material that surrounds and is tightly bound to the fibres. The most widely used type of composite material is polymer matrix composites (PMCs). PMCs consist of fibres made ​​of a ceramic material such as carbon or glass embedded in a plastic matrix. Usually the fibres make up about 60 per cent by volume. Composites with metal matrices or ceramic matrices are called metal matrix composites (MMCs) and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), respectively.

Continuous-fibre composites are generally required for structural applications. The specific strength (strength-to-density ratio) and specific stiffness (elastic modulus-to-density ratio) of continuous carbon fibre PMCs, for example, can be better than metal alloys have. Composites can also have other attractive properties, such as high thermal or electrical conductivity and a low coefficient of thermal expansion.

Although composite materials have certain advantages over conventional materials, composites also have some disadvantages. For example, PMCs and other composite materials tend to be highly anisotropic - that is, their strength, stiffness, and other engineering properties are different depending on the orientation of the composite material. For example, if a PMC is fabricated so that all the fibres are lined up parallel to one another, then the PMC will be very stiff in the direction parallel to the fibres, but not stiff in the perpendicular direction. The designer who uses composite materials in structures subjected to multidirectional forces, must take these anisotropic properties into account. Also, forming strong connections between separate composite material components is difficult.

The advanced composites have high manufacturing costs. Fabricating composite materials is a complex process. However, new manufacturing techniques are developed. It will become possible to produce composite materials at higher volumes and at a lower cost than is now possible, accelerating the wider exploitation of these materials.

Vocabulary:

fibreglass - скловолокно

fibre - волокно, нитка

reinforced - зміцнений

expansion - розширення

matrix - матриця

ceramic - керамічний

specific strength - питома міцність

specific stiffness - питома жорсткість

anisotropic - анізотропний

General understanding:

1. What is called «composite materials»?

2. What are the best properties of fibre-glass?

3. What do composite material usually consist of?

4. What is used as matrix in composites?

5. What is used as filler or fibers in composites?

6. How are the composite materials with ceramic and metal matrices called?

7. What are the advantages of composites?

8. What are the disadvantages of composites?

9. Why anisotropic properties of composites should be taken into account?

Exercise 5.5. Find equivalents in the text:

1. композитні матеріали

2. унікальні механічні якості

3. полімерні композити матричні

4. становити 60% обсягу

5. вуглепластик

6. привабливі якості

7. структура, що піддається впливу різноспрямованих сил

Exercise 5.6. Translate into Russian:

1. PMC is fabricated so that all the fibres are lined up parallel to one another.

2. Forming strong connections between separate composite material components is difficult.

3. Fabricating composite materials is a complex process.

4. Composite materials have certain advantages over conventional materials

5. Nowadays, composites are being used for structures such as bridges, boat-building etc.

6. Continuous-fibre composites are generally required for structural applications.

FAMOUS INVENTORS


Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a famous Swedish chemist and inventor. He was born in Stockholm in 1833. After receiving an education in St. Petersburg, Russia, and then in the United States, where he studied mechanical engineering, he returned to St. Petersburg to work with his father in Russia. They were developing mines, torpedoes, and other explosives.

In a family-owned factory in Heleneborg, Sweden, he developed a safe way to handle nitroglycerine, after a factory explosion in 1864 killed his younger brother and four other people. In 1867 Nobel achieved his goal: he produced what he called dynamite динаміт. Чи не later produced one of the first smokeless powders (порох). At the time of his death he controlled factories for the manufacture of explosives (вибухова речовина) in many parts of the world. In his will he wanted that the major portion of his money left became a fund for yearly prizes in his name. The prizes were to be given for merits (заслуги) in physics, chemistry, medicine and physiology, literature, and world peace. A prize in economics has been awarded since 1969.

UNIT 6

WELDING


I. Text A: «Welding», Text В: «Other types of welding»

II. Famous People of Science and Technology: James Prescott Joule.


Text A: «WELDING»


Welding is a process when metal parts are joined together by the application of heat, pressure, or a combination of both. The processes of welding can be divided into two main groups:

pressure welding, when the weld is achieved by pressure and

heat welding, when the weld is achieved by heat. Heat welding is the most common welding process used today.

Nowadays welding is used instead of bolting and riveting in the construction of many types of structures, including bridges, buildings, and ships. It is also a basic process in the manufacture of machinery and in the motor and aircraft industries. It is necessary almost in all productions where metals are used.

The welding process depends greatly on the properties of the metals, the purpose of their application and the available equipment. Welding processes are classified according to the sources of heat and pressure used.

The welding processes widely employed today include gas welding, arc welding, and resistance welding. Other joining processes are laser welding, and electron-beam welding.

Gas Welding

Gas welding is a non-pressure process using heat from a gas flame. The flame is applied directly to the metal edges to be joined and simultaneously to a filler metal in the form of wire or rod, called the welding rod, which is melted to the joint. Gas welding has the advantage of using equipment that is portable and does not require an electric power source. The surfaces to be welded and the welding rod are coated with flux, a fusible material that shields the material from air, which would result in a defective weld.

Arc Welding

Arc-welding is the most important welding process for joining steels. It requires a continuous supply of either direct or alternating electrical current. This current is used to create an electric arc, which generates enough heat to melt metal and create a weld.

Arc welding has several advantages over other welding methods. Arc welding is faster because the concentration of heat is high. Also, fluxes are not necessary in certain methods of arc welding. The most widely used arc-welding processes are shielded metal arc, gas-tungsten arc, gas-metal arc, and submerged arc.

Shielded Metal Arc

In shielded metal-arc welding, a metallic electrode, which conducts electricity, is coated with flux and connected to a source of electric current. The metal to be welded is connected to the other end of the same source of current. An electric arc is formed by touching the tip of the electrode to the metal and then drawing it away. The intense heat of the arc melts both parts to be welded and the point of the metal electrode, which supplies filler metal for the weld. This process is used mainly for welding steels.

Vocabulary:

to join - з'єднувати

pressure welding - зварювання тиском

heat welding - зварювання нагріванням

instead - замість, натомість

bolting - скріплення болтами

riveting - клепка

basic - основний

to manufacture - виготовляти

to depend - залежатиме від

purpose - мета

available - наявний

equipment - обладнання

source - джерело

gas welding - газозварювання

arc welding - електродугова зварювання

resistance welding - контактне зварювання

laser welding - лазерне зварювання

electron-beam welding - електронно-променева зварювання

flame - полум'я

edge - край

simultaneously - одночасно

filler - наповнювач

wire - дріт

rod - прут, стрижень

to melt - плавити (ся)

joint - з'єднання, стик

advantage - перевага

to require - вимагати потребувати

surface - поверхня

coated - покритий

flux - флюс

fusible - плавкий

to shield - затуляти, захищати

touching - торкання

tip - кінчик

General understanding:

1. How can a process of welding be defined?

2. What are the two main groups of processes of welding?

3. How can we join metal parts together?

4. What is welding used for nowadays?

5. Where is welding necessary?

6. What do the welding processes of today include?

7. What are the principles of gas welding?

8. What kinds of welding can be used for joining steels?

9. What does arc welding require? 10. What is the difference between the arc welding and shielded-metal welding?

Exercise 6.1. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:

1. зварювання тиском

2. теплова зварювання

3. болтове (клепані) з'єднання

4. процес зварювання

5. залежати від властивостей металів

6. наявне обладнання

7. зварювальний електрод

8. плавкий матеріал

9. дефектний зварний шов

10. безперервна подача електричного струму

11. електрична дуга

12. джерело електричного струму


Text В: «OTHER TYPES OF WELDING»


Non-consumable Electrode Arc welding

As a non-consumable electrodes tungsten or carbon electrodes can be used. In gas-tungsten arc welding a tungsten electrode is used in place of the metal electrode used in shielded metal-arc welding. A chemically inert gas, such as argon, helium, or carbon dioxide is used to shield the metal from oxidation. The heat from the arc formed between the electrode and the metal melts the edges of the metal. Metal for the weld may be added by placing a bare wire in the arc or the point of the weld. This process can be used with nearly all metals and produces a high-quality weld. However, the rate of welding is considerably slower than in other processes.

Gas-Metal Arc

In gas-metal welding, a bare electrode is shielded from the air by surrounding it with argon or carbon dioxide gas and sometimes by coating the electrode with flux. The electrode is fed into the electric arc, and melts off in droplets that enter the liquid metal of the weld seam. Most metals can be joined by this process.

Submerged Arc

Submerged-arc welding is similar to gas-metal arc welding, but in this process no gas is used to shield the weld. Instead of that, the arc and tip of the wire are submerged beneath a layer of granular, fusible material that covers the weld seam. This process is also called electroslag welding. It is very efficient but can be used only with steels.

Resistance Welding

In resistance welding, heat is obtained from the resistance of metal to the flow of an electric current. Electrodes are clamped on each side of the parts to be welded, the parts are subjected to great pressure, and a heavy current is applied for a short period of time. The point where the two metals touch creates resistance to the flow of current. This resistance causes heat, which melts the metals and creates the weld. Resistance welding is widely employed in many fields of sheet metal or wire manufacturing and is often used for welds made ​​by automatic or semi-automatic machines especially in automobile industry.

Vocabulary

gas-tungsten - зварювання оплавленням вольфрамовим електродом в середовищі інертного газу

inert - інертний

edge - край

bare - голий

rate - зд. швидкість

gas-metal arc - аргонодуговая зварювання

considerably - значно, значно

surrounding - навколишній

carbon dioxide - вуглекислий газ

droplet - крапелька

liquid - рідина, рідкий

beneath - під, нижче, внизу

layer - шар

weld seam - зварний шов

resistance - опір

clamp - затиск, затискати

sheet - лист

fusible - плавкий

granular - плавкий

semi-automatic - напівавтоматична

to create - створювати

to submerge - занурювати

General understanding:

1. What is the difference between the arc-welding and non-consumable electrode arc welding?

2. What are the disadvantages of the non-consumable electrode arc welding?

3. How is electrode protected from the air in gas-metal arc welding?

4. What is submerged arc welding?

5. What is the principle of resistance welding?

6. Where is semi-automatic welding employed?

Exercise 6.2. Translate into English:

1. вольфрамовий електрод

2. інертний газ

3. окислення

4. високоякісний зварювальний шов

5. швидкість зварювання

6. аргон, гелій, вуглекислий газ

7. рідкий метал

8. шар плавкого матеріалу у вигляді гранул

9. листовий метал

10. полувтоматіческіе зварювальні верстати

Exercise 6.3. Translate into Russian:

1. In resistance welding, heat is obtained from the resistance of metal to the flow of an electric current.

2. The heat from the arc melts the edges of the metal.

3. A bare electrode is shielded from the air by surrounding it with argon or carbon dioxide gas.

4. Submerged-arc welding is similar to gas-metal arc welding.

5. Electrodes are clamped on each side of the parts to be welded.

6. Resistance causes heat which melts the metals and creates the weld.


FAMOUS PEOPLE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


James Prescott Joule, famous British physicist, was born in 1818 in Salford, England.

Joule was one of the most outstanding physicists of his time. He is best known for his research in electricity and thermodynamics. In the course of his investigations of the heat emitted in an electrical circuit, he formulated the law, now known as Joule's law of electric heating. This law states that the amount of heat produced each second in a conductor by electric current is proportional to the resistance of the conductor and to the square of the current. Joule experimentally verified the law of conservation of energy in his study of the conversion of mechanical energy into heat energy.

Joule determined the numerical relation between heat and mechanical energy, or the mechanical equivalent of heat, using many independent methods. The unit of energy, called the joule, is named after him. It is equal to 1 watt-second. Together with the physicist William Thomson (Baron Kelvin), Joule found that the temperature of a gas falls when it expands without doing any work. This phenomenon, which became known as the Joule-Thomson effect, lies in the operation of modern refrigeration and air-conditioning systems.


UNIT 7

AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS


I. Text A: «Automation», Text B: «Types of automation»,

Text C: «Robots In manufacturing»

II. Famous people of science and technology: James Watt.


Text A: «AUTOMATION»


Automation is the system of manufacture performing certain tasks, previously done by people, by machines only. The sequences of operations are controlled automatically. The most familiar example of a highly automated system is an assembly plant for automobiles or other complex products.

The term automation is also used to describe non-manufacturing systems in which automatic devices can operate independently of human control. Such devices as automatic pilots, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems are used to perform various operations much faster and better than could be done by people.

Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development. Mechanization was the first step necessary in the development of automation. The simplification of work made ​​it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker. These specialized machines were motorized and they had better production efficiency.

Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple tasks in environments dangerous to human workers, are now widely used to transfer, manipulate, and position both light and heavy workpieces performing all the functions of a transfer machine.

In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an integrated system of production. This method of production was adopted by most car manufacturers and became known as Detroit automation.

The feedback principle is used in all automatic-control mechanisms when machines have ability to correct themselves. The feedback principle has been used for centuries. An outstanding early example is the flyball governor, invented in 1788 by James Watt to control the speed of the steam engine. The common household thermostat is another example of a feedback device.

Using feedback devices, machines can start, stop, speed up, slow down, count, inspect, test, compare, and measure. These operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations.

Computers have greatly facilitated the use of feedback in manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of numerically controlled machines. The motions of these machines are controlled by punched paper or magnetic tapes. In numerically controlled machining centres machine tools can perform several different machining operations.

More recently, the introduction of microprocessors and computers have made ​​possible the development of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies. When using these systems a designer draws a part and indicates its dimensions with the help of a mouse, light pen, or other input device. After the drawing has been completed the computer automatically gives the instructions that direct a machining centre to machine the part.

Another development using automation are the flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). A computer in FMS can be used to monitor and control the operation of the whole factory.

Automation has also had an influence on the areas of the economy other than manufacturing. Small computers are used in systems called word processors, which are rapidly becoming a standard part of the modern office. They are used to edit texts, to type letters and so on.

Automation in Industry

Many industries are highly automated or use automation technology in some part of their operation. In communications and especially in the telephone industry dialing and transmission are all done automatically. Railways are also controlled by automatic signaling devices, which have sensors that detect carriages passing a particular point. In this way the movement and location of trains can be monitored.

Not all industries require the same degree of automation. Sales, agriculture, and some service industries are difficult to automate, though agriculture industry may become more mechanized, especially in the processing and packaging of foods.

The automation technology in manufacturing and assembly is widely used in car and other consumer product industries.

Nevertheless, each industry has its own concept of automation that answers its particular production needs.

Vocabulary:

automation - автоматизація

previously - раніше

sequence - послідовність

assembly plant - складальний завод

non-manufacturing - невиробничий

device - пристрій, прилад

resemble - походити

efficiency - ефективність

flyball governor - відцентровий регулятор

steam engine - паровоз

household thermostat - побутової термостат

facilitate - сприяти

punched - перфорований

aid - допомога

dimension - вимірювання, розміри

General understanding:

1. How is the term automation defined in the text?

2. What is the most «familiar example» of automation given in the text?

3. What was the first step in the development of automaton?

4. What were the first robots originally designed for?

5. What was the first industry to adopt the new integrated system of production?

6. What is feedback principle?

7. What do the abbreviations CAM and CAD stand for?

8. What is FMS?

9. What industries use automation technologies?

Exercise 7.1. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:

1. автоматичні пристрої

2. автоматизоване виробництво

3. виконувати прості завдання

4. як легкі, так і важкі деталі

5. інтегрована система виробництва

6. принцип зворотного зв'язку

7. механізм може розганятися і гальмувати

8. комп'ютер автоматично посилає команди

9. високоавтоматизована система

10. невиробнича система


Text В: «TYPES OF AUTOMATION»


Applications of Automation and Robotics in Industry

Manufacturing is one of the most important application area for automation technology. There are several types of automation in manufacturing. The examples of automated systems used in manufacturing are described below.

1. Fixed automation, sometimes called «hard automation» refers to automated machines in which the equipment configuration allows fixed sequence of processing operations. These machines are programmed by their design to make only certain processing operations. They are not easily changed over from one product style to another. This form of automation needs high initial investments and high production rates. That is why it is suitable for products that are made ​​in large volumes. Examples of fixed automation are machining transfer lines found in the automobile industry, automatic assembly machines and certain chemical processes.

2. Programmable automation is a form of automation for producing products in large quantities, ranging from several dozen to several thousand units at a time. For each new product the production equipment must be reprogrammed and changed over. This reprogramming and changeover take a period of non-productive time. Production rates in programmable automation are generally lower than in fixed automation, because the equipment is designed to facilitate product changeover rather than for product specialization. A numerical-control machine-tool is a good example of programmable automation. The program is coded in computer memory for each different product style and the machine-tool is controlled by the computer programme.

3. Flexible automation is a kind of programmable automation. Programmable automation requires time to re-program and change over the production equipment for each series of new product. This is lost production time, which is expensive. In flexible automation the number of products is limited so that the changeover of the equipment can be done very quickly and automatically. The reprogramming of the equipment in flexible automation is done at a computer terminal without using the production equipment itself. Flexible automation allows a mixture of different products to be produced one right after another.

Vocabulary

equipment - обладнання

sequence - послідовність

initial - початковий, початковий

investment - інвестиція, вклад

to facilitate - сприяти

rate - швидкість, темп

assembly machines - складальні машини

quantity - кількість

non-productive - непродуктивний

changeover - перехід, переналагодження

General understanding:

1. What is the most important application of automation?

2. What are the types of automation used in manufacturing?

3. What is fixed automation?

4. What are the limitations of hard automation?

5. What is the best example of programmable automation?

6. What are the limitations of programmable automation?

7. What are the advantages of flexible automation?

8. Is it possible to produce different products one after another using automation technology?

Exercise 7.2. Find equivalents in English in the text:

1. сфера застосування

2. фіксована послідовність операцій

3. автоматичні складальні машини

4. певні хімічні процеси

5. верстат з числовим програмним управлінням

6. втрачене виробниче час

7. різноманітна продукція

Exercise 7.3. Explain in English what does the following mean?

1. automation technology

2. fixed automation

3. assembly machines

4. non-productive time

5. programmable automation

6. computer terminal

7. numerical-control machine-tool


Text C: «ROBOTS IN MANUFACTURING»


Today most robots are used in manufacturing operations. The applications of robots can be divided into three categories:

1. material handling

2. processing operations

3. assembly and inspection.

Material-handling is the transfer of material and loading and unloading of machines. Material-transfer applications require the robot to move materials or work parts from one to another. Many of these tasks are relatively simple: robots pick up parts from one conveyor and place them on another. Other transfer operations are more complex, such as placing parts in an arrangement that can be calculated by the robot. Machine loading and unloading operations utilize a robot to load and unload parts. This requires the robot to be equipped with a grip-per that can grasp parts. Usually the gripper must be designed specifically for the particular part geometry.

In robotic processing operations, the robot manipulates a tool to perform a process on the work part. Examples of such applications include spot welding, continuous arc welding and spray painting. Spot welding of automobile bodies is one of the most common applications of industrial robots. The robot positions a spot welder against the automobile panels and frames to join them. Arc welding is a continuous process in which robot moves the welding rod along the welding seam. Spray painting is the manipulation of a spray-painting gun over the surface of the object to be coated. Other operations in this category include grinding and polishing in which a rotating spindle serves as the robot's tool.

The third application area of industrial robots is assembly and inspection. The use of robots in assembly is expected to increase because of the high cost of manual labour. But the design of the product is an important aspect of robotic assembly. Assembly methods that are satisfactory for humans are not always suitable for robots. Screws and nuts are widely used for fastening in manual assembly, but the same operations are extremely difficult for an one-armed robot.

Inspection is another area of factory operations in which the utilization of robots is growing. In a typical inspection job, the robot positions a sensor with respect to the work part and determines whether the part answers the quality specifications. In nearly all industrial robotic applications, the robot provides a substitute for human labour. There are certain characteristics of industrial jobs performed by humans that can be done by robots:

1. the operation is repetitive, involving the same basic work motions every cycle,

2. the operation is hazardous or uncomfortable for the human worker (for example: spray painting, spot welding, arc welding, and certain machine loading and unloading tasks),

3. the workpiece or tool is too heavy and difficult to handle,

4. the operation allows the robot to be used on two or three shifts.

Vocabulary:

handling - звернення

transfer - передача, перенесення

location - місцезнаходження

pick up - брати, підбирати

arrangement - розташування

to utilize - утилізувати, знаходити застосування

gripper - захоплення

to grasp - схоплювати

spot welding - точкове зварювання

continuous - безперервний

arc welding - електродугова зварювання

spray painting - забарвлення розпиленням

frame - рама

spray-painting gun - розпилювач фарби

grinding - шліфування

polishing - полірування

spindle - шпиндель

manual - ручний

labour - праця

hazardous - небезпечний

shift - зміна

General understanding:

1. How are robots used in manufacturing?

2. What is «material handling»?

3. What does a robot need to be equipped with to do loading and unloading operations?

4. What does robot manipulate in robotic processing operation?

5. What is the most common application of robots in automobile manufacturing?

6. What operations could be done by robot in car manufacturing industry?

7. What are the main reasons to use robots in production?

8. How can robots inspect the quality of production?

9. What operations could be done by robots in hazardous or uncomfortable for the human workers conditions?

Exercise 7.4. Translate into English:

1. Існує кілька різних сфер використання автоматизації в виробництві.

2. Для використання жорсткої автоматизації необхідні великі інвестиції.

3. Жорстка автоматизація широко використовується в хімічній промисловості.

4. Верстати з числовим програмним управлінням - хороший приклад програмованої автоматизації.

5. Гнучка автоматизація робить можливим перепрограмування обладнання.

6. Час простою обладнання обертається великими збитками.

7. Використання гнучкої автоматизації робить можливим виробництво різноманітної продукції.


FAMOUS PEOPLE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


James Watt

James Watt was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, known for his improvements of the steam engine.

Watt was born on January 19, 1736, in Greenock, Scotland. He worked as a mathematical-instrument maker from the age of 19 and soon became interested in improving the steam engine which was used at that time to pump out water from mines.

Watt determined the properties of steam, especially the relation of its density to its temperature and pressure, and designed a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine that prevented large losses of steam in the cylinder. Watt's first patent, in 1769, covered this device and other improvements on steam engine.

At that time. Watt was the partner of the inventor John Roebuck, who had financed his researches. In 1775, however. Roebuck's interest was taken over by the manufacturer Matthew Boulton, owner of the Soho Engineering Works at Birmingham, and he and Watt began the manufacture of steam engines. Watt continued his research and patented several other important inventions, including the rotary engine for driving various types of machinery; the double-action engine, in which steam is admitted alternately into both ends of the cylinder; and the steam indicator, which records the steam pressure in the engine. He retired from the firm in 1800 and thereafter devoted himself entirely to research work.

The misconception that Watt was the actual inventor of the steam engine arose from the fundamental nature of his contributions to its development. The centrifugal or flyball governor, which he invented in 1788, and which automatically regulated the speed of an engine, is of particular interest today. It embodies the feedback principle of a servomechanism, linking output to input, which is the basic concept of automation. The watt, the unit of power, was named in his honour. Watt was also a well-known civil engineer. He invented, in 1767, an attachment that adapted telescopes for use in the measurement of distances. Watt died in Heathfield, near Birmingham, in August 1819.


UNIT8

COMPUTERS


I. Text A: «What is a computer?», Text B: «Hardware», Text C: «Types of software»

II. Famous people of science and engineering: Charles Babbage.


Text A: «WHAT IS A COMPUTER?»


The term computer is used to describe a device made ​​up of a combination of electronic and electromechanical (part electronic and part mechanical) components. Computer has no intelligence by itself and is referred to as hardware. A computer system is a combination of five elements:

Hardware

Software

People

Procedures

Data / information

When one computer system is set up to communicate with another computer system, connectivity becomes the sixth system element. In other words, the manner in which the various individual systems are connected - for example, by phone lines, microwave transmission, or satellite - is an element of the total computer system.

Software is the term used to describe the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task. Without software instructions, the hardware doesn't know what to do. People, however, are the most important component of the computer system: they create the computer software instructions and respond to the procedures that those instructions present.

The basic job of the computer is the processing of information. Computers accept information in the form of instruction called a program and characters called data to perform mathematical and logical operations, and then give the results. The data is raw material while information is organized, processed, refined and useful for decision making. Computer is used to convert data into information. Computer is also used to store information in the digital form.

Vocabulary:

characters - символи

data - дані

decision - рішення

device - пристрій

hardware - обладнання

instruction - команда

intelligence - розум

manner - манера, спосіб

microwave - мікрохвильова

procedures - процедури, операції

purpose - мета

raw - необроблений, сирої

to come to life - оживати

to connect - з'єднувати

to convert - перетворювати, перетворювати

to create - створювати

to evaluate - оцінювати

to refer to as - називати що-небудь

to refine - очищати

to respond - відповідати

transmission - передача

various - різні

General understanding:

1) What does the term «computer» describe?

2) Is computer intelligent?

3) What are five components of computer system?

4) What is connectivity?

5) What is software? What's the difference between hardware and software?

6) Why people are the most important component of a computer system?

7) In what way terms «data» and «information» differ?

8) How does computer convert data into information?

Exercise 8.1. Which of the listed below terms have Russian equivalents:

computer, diskette, metal, processor, scanner, information, data, microphones, printer, modem, Internet.

Exercise 8.2. Which of the listed above statements are true / false. Specify your answer using the text.

1) Computer is made ​​of electronic components so it is referred to as electronic device.

2) Computer has no intelligence until software is loaded.

3) There are five elements of computer system: hardware, software, people, diskettes and data.

4) The manner in which computers are connected is the connectivity.

5) Without software instructions hardware doesn't know what to do.

6) The software is the most important component because it is made ​​by people.

7) The user inputs data into computer to get information as an output.

8) Computer is used to help people in decision making process.

Exercise 8.3. Match the following:

1) ... doesn't come to life until it is connected to other parts of a system.

2) ... is the term used to describe the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task.

3) ... create the computer software instructions and respond to the procedures that those instructions present

4) Information in the form of instruction is called a. ..

5) The manner in which the various individual systems are connected is ...

6) ... is organized, processed and useful for decision making

7) The basic job of the computer is the ...

a) program

b) information

c) processing of information

d) software

e) connectivity

f) computer

g) people

Exercise 8.4. Translate the text. Retell the text, using the vocabulary.

Exercise 8.5. Questions for group discussion:

1) Why so many people are still «computer illiterate»?

2) What are the most important applications of computer? (Are computer games just a «waste of time» or it is a nice hobby and a lot of fun?)

3) Who has a computer in your group? Ask them what they use it for?


Text B: «HARDWARE»


What is hardware? Webster's dictionary gives us the following definition of the hardware - the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical devices composing a computer system.

Computer hardware can be divided into four categories:

1) input hardware

2) processing hardware

3) storage hardware

4) output hardware.

Input hardware

The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and convert it into a form suitable for computer processing. The most common input device is a keyboard. It looks very much like a typewriter. The mouse is a hand held device connected to the computer by small cable. As the mouse is rolled across the mouse pad, the cursor moves across the screen. When the cursor reaches the desired location, the user usually pushes a button on the mouse once or twice to signal a menu selection or a command to the computer.

The light pen uses a light sensitive photoelectric cell to signal screen position to the computer. Another type of input hardware is optic-electronic scanner that is used to input graphics as well as typeset characters. Microphone and video camera can be also used to input data into the computer. Electronic cameras are becoming very popular among the consumers for their relatively low price and convenience.

Processing hardware

The purpose of processing hardware is retrieve, interpret and direct the execution of software instructions provided to the computer. The most common components of processing hardware are the Central Processing Unit and main memory.

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer. It reads and interprets software instructions and coordinates the processing activities that must take place. The design of the CPU affects the processing power and the speed of the computer, as well as the amount of main memory it can use effectively. With a well-designed CPU in your computer, you can perform highly sophisticated tasks in a very short time.

Memory is the system of component of the computer in which information is stored. There are two types of computer memory: RAM and ROM.

RAM (random access memory) is the volatile computer memory, used for creating loading, and running programs and for manipulating and temporarily storing data;

ROM (read only memory) is nonvolatile, non-modifiable computer memory, used to hold programmed instructions to the system.

The more memory you have in your computer, the more operations you can perform.

Storage hardware

The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and retrieve when needed for processing. Storage hardware serves the same basic functions as do office filing systems except that it stores data as electromagnetic signals. The most common ways of storing data are Hard disk, floppy disk and CD-ROM.

Hard disk is a rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing programs and relatively large amounts of data.

Floppy disk (diskette) - thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer data and programs. There are two formats for floppy disks: 5.25 "and 3.5". 5.25 "is not used in modern computer systems because of it relatively large size flexibility and small capacity. 3.5" disks are formatted 1.4 megabytes and are widely used.

CD-ROM (compact disc read only memory) is a compact disc on which a large amount of digitized read-only data can be stored. CD-ROMs are very popular now because of the growing speed which CD-ROM drives can provide nowadays. Output hardware

The purpose of output hardware is to provide the user with the means to view information produced by the computer system. Information is output in either hardcopy or softcopy form. Hardcopy output can be held in your hand, such as paper with text (word or numbers) or graphics printed on it. Softcopy output is displayed on a monitor.

Monitor is a component with a display screen for viewing computer data, television programs, etc.

Printer is a computer output device that produces a paper copy of data or graphics.

Modem is an example of communication hardware - an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines.

Hardware comes in many configurations, depending on what the computer system is designed to do. Hardware can fill several floors of a large office building or can fit on your lap.

Vocabulary:

amount - кількість

capacity - місткість

circuitry - ел. ланцюга

CPU, microprocessor - мікропроцесор

hard disk - жорсткий диск, «вінчестер»

input hardware - пристрої введення даних

keyboard - клавіатура

lap - коліна

modem - модем

mouse - пристрій для переміщення об'єктів на екрані, «миша»

output hardware - вихідні пристрої відображення інформації

printer - принтер

processing hardware - пристрої обробки даних

RAM - ОЗП (оперативний запам'ятовуючий пристрій)

ROM - ПЗП (постійний запам'ятовуючий пристрій)

CD-ROM - накопичувач на компакт-дисках (CD)

scanner - сканер

sensitive - чутливий

sophisticated - складний

storage hardware - пристрої зберігання даних

temporarily - тимчасово

temporary - тимчасовий

the purpose - мета

tier - ярус

to affect - впливати

to connect - з'єднувати

to convert - перетворювати

to direct - керувати

to execute - виконувати

to interpret - переводити

to provide - забезпечувати

to reach - досягати

to retrieve - витягати

to roll - катати, перекочувати

volatile - летючий, нестійкий, тимчасовий

General understanding:

1. What is the Webster's dictionary definition of the hardware?

2. What groups of hardware could be defined?

3. What is input hardware? What are the examples of input hardware?

4. What is mouse designed for? What is a light pen?

5. What is processing hardware? What are the basic types of memory used in a PC?

6. Can a PC-user change the ROM? Who records the information in ROM?

7. What is storage hardware? What is CD-ROM used for? Can a user record his or her data on a CD? What kind of storage hardware can contain more information: CD-ROM, RAM or ROM?

8. What is modem used for? Can PC-user communicate with other people without a modem?

Exercise 8.6. Which of the listed below statements are true / false. Specify your answer using the text.

1) Computer is an electronic device therefore hardware is a system of electronic devices.

2) The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and convert it into a form suitable for computer processing.

3) Scanner is used to input graphics only.

4) The purpose of processing hardware is to retrieve, interpret and direct the execution of software instructions provided to the computer.

5) CPU reads and interprets software and prints the results on paper.

6) User is unable to change the contents of ROM.

7) 5.25 "floppy disks are used more often because they are flexible and have more capacity than 3.5" disks.

5) Printer is a processing hardware because its purpose is to show the information produced by the system.

6) Modem is an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data from one computer to another via telephone or other communication lines.

7) The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and retrieve them when needed for processing.

Exercise8.7. Give definitions to the following using the vocabulary

1) CPU

2) ROM

3) Floppy-disk

4) CD-ROM

5) Printer

6) Modem

7) Motherboard

8) Hard disk

9) Keyboard

10) Sound-card

Exercise 8.8. Which of the following is Hardware:

1) program

2) mouse

3) CPU

4) printer

5) modem

6) command

7) port

8) cursor or the pointer

9) keyboard

10) character

Exercise 8.9. Match the following:

1) процесор

2) клавіатура

3) миша

4) дискета

5) «вінчестер»

6) модем

7) екран

8) ПЗУ

9) ОЗУ

a) nonvolatile, non-modifiable computer memory, used to hold programmed instructions to the system.

b) the part of a television or computer on which a picture is formed or information is displayed.

c) rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer programs and relatively large amounts of data.

d) an electronic device that makes possible he transmission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines.

e) a set of keys, usually arranged in tiers, for operating a typewriter, typesetting machine, computer terminal, or the like.

f) volatile computer memory, used for creating, loading, and running programs and for manipulating and temporarily storing data; main memory.

g) central processing unit: the key component of a computer system, containing the circuitry necessary to interpret and execute program instructions.

h) a palm-sized device equipped with one or more buttons, used to point at and select items on a computer display screen and for controlling the cursor by means of analogous movement on a nearby surface.

i) a thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer data and program.

Questions for group discussion:

1) Without what parts computer is unable to work?

2) What is the most expensive part of the hardware?

3) What other hardware devices do you know? What are they for? Do you know how to use them?


Text C: "TYPES OF SOFTWARE»


A computer to complete a job requires more than just the actual equipment or hardware we see and touch. It requires Software - programs for directing the operation of a computer or electronic data.

Software is the final computer system component. These computer programs instruct the hardware how to conduct processing. The computer is merely a general-purpose machine which requires specific software to perform a given task. Computers can input, calculate, compare, and output data as information. Software determines the order in which these operations are performed.

Programs usually fall in one of two categories: system software and applications software.

System software controls standard internal computer activities. An operating system, for example, is a collection of system programs that aid in the operation of a computer regardless of the application software being used. When a computer is first turned on, one of the systems programs is booted or loaded into the computers memory. This software contains information about memory capacity, the model of the processor, the disk drives to be used, and more. Once the system software is loaded, the applications software can be brought in.

System programs are designed for the specific pieces of hardware. These programs are called drivers and coordinate peripheral hardware and computer activities. User needs to install a specific driver in order to activate a peripheral device. For example, if you intend to buy a printer or a scanner you need to worry in advance about the driver program which, though, commonly goes along with your device. By installing the driver you «teach» your mainboard to «understand» the newly attached part.

Applications software satisfies your specific need. The developers of application software rely mostly on marketing research strategies trying to do their best to attract more users (buyers) to their software. As the productivity of the hardware has increased greatly in recent years, the programmers nowadays tend to include as much as possible in one program to make software interface look more attractive to the user. These class of programs is the most numerous and perspective from the

marketing point of view.

Data communication within and between computers systems is handled by system software. Communications software transfers data from one computer system to another. These programs usually provide users with data security and error checking along with physically transferring data between the two computer's memories. During the past five years the developing electronic network communication has stimulated more and more companies to produce various communication software, such as Web-Browsers for Internet.

Vocabulary:

aid - допомога

to attach - приєднувати

control - управління

developer - розробник

equipment - обладнання

general-purpose - загального призначення

internal - внутрішній

mainboard - материнська плата

memory capacity - місткість пам'яті

peripheral - периферійний

regard - відношення

regardless - незважаючи на, безвідносно,

security - безпека

specific - конкретний, визначений

to boot - завантажувати

to check - перевіряти

to complete - здійснювати, завершувати

to conduct - проводити

to develop - розвивати, проявляти

to direct - управляти, керувати

to handle - керувати, звертатися з

to install - встановлювати, вбудовувати, інсталювати

to provide with - забезпечувати чим-небудь

to require - вимагати

to secure - забезпечувати безпеку

to transfer - перекладати, переносити

Web-browser - «браузер» (програма, що дозволяє користувачеві шукати і зчитувати інформацію з глобальної електронної мережі Internet)

General understanding

1. What is software?

2. In what two basic groups software (programs) could be divided?

3. What is system software for?

4. What is an operating system - a system software or application software?

5. What is a «driver»?

6. What is application software?

7. What is application software used for?

8. What is the tendency in application software market in the recent years?

9. What is the application of the communication software?

Exercise 8.10. Which of the following is Software:

1. Program

2. Mouse

3. CPU

4. Word processor

5. Modem

6. Web-browser

7. Operating system

8. Scanner

9. Printer

10. Display

Exercise 8.11. Which of the listed below statements are true / false. Specify your answer using the text:

1) Computer programs only instruct hardware how to handle data storage.

2) System software controls internal computer activities.

3) System software is very dependable on the type of application software being used.

4) The information about memory capacity, the model of the processor and disk drives are unavailable for system software.

5) The driver is a special device usually used by car drivers for Floppy-disk driving.

6) It is very reasonable to ask for a driver when you buy a new piece of hardware.

7) Software developers tend to make their products very small and with poor interface to save computer resources.

8) Communication software is in great demand now because of the new advances in communication technologies.

9) Application software is merely a general-purpose instrument.

10) Web-browsers is the class of software for electronic communication through the network.

Exercise 8.12. Find English equivalents in the text:

1) Програмне забезпечення визначає порядок виконання операцій.

2) Прикладні програми виконують поставлену вами конкретну задачу (задовольняють вашу потреба).

3) Цей клас програм - найчисленніший і перспективний з точки зору маркетингу.

4) Системні програми призначені для конкретних пристроїв комп'ютерної системи.

5) Встановлюючи драйвер, ви <вчіть »систему« розуміти »знову приєднане пристрій.

6) Коли комп'ютер вперше включається, одна з системних програм повинна бути завантажена в його пам'ять.

7) Розвиток систем електронної комунікації за останні п'ять років стимулювало виробництво відповідних програмних продуктів зростаючим числом компаній-розробників.

Exercise 8.13. Give definitions to the following using the vocabulary:

1) Software

2) Driver

3) Application software

4) Operating system

5) Communication software

6) Computer

7) Peripheral device

8) Operating system

Questions for group discussion:

1) What do you think is more expensive - hardware or software?

2) Has anyone in your group ever purchased software? Why do you think piracy (audio, video, computer software) still exists?


FAMOUS PEOPLE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Babbage, Charles (1792-1871), British mathematician and inventor, who designed and built mechanical computing machines on principles that anticipated the modern electronic computer. Babbage was born in Teignmouth, Devon, and educated at the University of Cambridge. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1816 and was active in the founding of the Analytical, the Royal Astronomical, and the Statistical Societies.

In the 1820s Babbage began developing his Difference Engine, a mechanical device that could perform simple mathematical calculations. Although Babbage started to build his machine, he was unable to complete it because of a lack of funding. In the 1830s Babbage began developing his Analytical Engine, which was designed to carry out more complicated calculations, but this device was never built, too. Babbage's book, «Economy of Machines and Manufactures» (1832), initiated the field of study known today as operational research.


UNIT 9

MODERN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES


I. Text A: «Operating systems», Text B: «Windows 95»,

Text C: «Internet and WWW»

II. Famous people of science and engineering: Bill Gates.


Text A: «OPERATING SYSTEMS»


When computers were first introduced in the 1940's and 50's, every program written had to provide instructions that told the computer how to use devices such as the printer, how to store information on a disk, as well as how to perform several other tasks not necessarily related to the program. The additional program instructions for working with hardware devices were very complex, and time-consuming. Programmers soon realized it would be smarter to develop one program that could control the computer's hardware, which others programs could have used when they needed it. With that, the first operating system was born.

Today, operating systems control and manage the use of hardware devices such as the printer or mouse. They also provide disk management by letting you store information in files. The operating system also lets you run programs such as the basic word processor. Lastly, the operating system provides several of its own commands that help you to use the computer.

DOS is the most commonly used PC operating system. DOS is an abbreviation for disk operating system. DOS was developed by a company named Microsoft. MS-DOS is an abbreviation for «Microsoft DOS». When IBM first released the IBM PC in 1981, IBM licensed DOS from Microsoft for use on the PC and called it PC-DOS. From the users perspective, PC-DOS and MS-DOS are the same, each providing the same capabilities and commands.

The version of DOS release in 1981 was 1.0. Over the past decade, DOS has undergone several changes. Each time the DOS developers release a new version, they increase the version number.

Windows NT (new technology) is an operating system developed by Microsoft. NT is an enhanced version of the popular Microsoft Windows 3.0, 3.1 programs. NT requires a 386 processor or greater and 8 Mb of RAM. For the best NT performance, you have to use a 486 processor with about 16 Mb or higher. Unlike the Windows, which runs on top of DOS, Windows NT is an operating system itself. However, NT is DOS compatible. The advantage of using NT over Windows is that NT makes better use of the PC's memory management capabilities.

OS / 2 is a PC operating system created by IBM. Like NT, OS / 2 is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets you run programs with a click of a mouse. Also like NT, OS / 2 performs best when you are using a powerful system. Many IBM-based PCs are shipped with OS / 2 preinstalled.

UNIX is a multi-user operating system that allows multiple users to access the system. Traditionally, UNIX was run on a larger mini computers to which users accessed the systems using terminals and not PC's. UNIX allowed each user to simultaneously run the programs they desired. Unlike NT and OS / 2, UNIX is not DOS compatible. Most users would not purchase UNIX for their own use.

Windows 95 & 98 (Windows 2000) are the most popular user-oriented operating systems with a friendly interface and multitasking capabilities. The usage of Windows 95 and its enhanced version Windows 98 is so simple that even little kids learn how to use it very quickly. Windows 95 and 98 are DOS compatible, so all programs written for DOS may work under the new operating system.

Windows 95 requires 486 processor with 16 megabytes of RAM or Pentium 75-90 with 40 megabytes of free hard disk space.

Vocabulary:

complex - складний

to consume - споживати

consumer - споживач

to realize - зрозуміти, усвідомити

smart - розумний

decade - декада, десятиліття

version - версія

to enhance - збільшувати, розширювати

top - верх, вершина

on top of DOS - «зверху», на основі ДОС

are shipped - поставляються

compatible - сумісний

with a click of a mouse - одним клацанням кнопки миші

access - доступ

to allow - дозволяти

multiple users - численні користувачі

simultaneously - одночасно

to desire - бажати

to ship - постачати, доставляти

General understanding:

1) What problems faced programmers in the 1940's and 1950's?

2) Why were the first programs «complex» and «time-consuming»?

3) What are the basic functions of operating system?

4) What does the abbreviation DOS mean?

5) What company developed the first version of DOS operating system? For what purpose was it done? Was the new operational system successful?

6) What is the difference between the PC-DOS and MS-DOS

7) What does the abbreviation NT stand for? Is NT DOS-compatible? What are the basic requirements for NT?

8) Who is the developer of OS / 2?

9) What makes UNIX so different from the other operational systems?

10) What are the special features of Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000?

Exercise 9.1. Match the following:

1) Like NT, ... is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets you run programmes with a click of a mouse.

2) ... is the most commonly used PC operating system

3) ... is a multi-user operating system that allows multiple users to access the system

4) ... is an operating system developed by Microsoft, an enhanced version of the popular Microsoft Windows programs.

5) The usage of ... is so simple that even little kids learn how to use it very quickly.

a) UNIX

b) DOS

c) NT

d) OS / 2

e) Windows 95

Exercise 9.2. Which of the listed below statements are true / false. Specify your answer using the text.

1) When computers were first introduced in 40's and 50's programmers had to write programs to instruct CD-ROMs, laser printers and scanners.

2) The operational system controls and manages the use of the hardware and the memory.

3) There are no commands available in operating systems, they are only in word processors.

4) Microsoft developed MS-DOS to compete with IBM's PC-DOS.

5) NT requires computers with 486 CPU and 16 M random access memory.

6) OS / 2 is DOS compatible because it was developed by Microsoft.

7) Traditionally, UNIX was run by many users simultaneously.

8) Windows 95 and Windows 98 are DOS compatible and have very «friendly» and convenient interface.

Exercise 9.3. Translate into English:

1) Сучасна операційні системи контролюють використання системного обладнання, наприклад, принтера та миші.

2) З точки зору користувача, операційні системи PC-DOS і MS-DOS ідентичні, з рівними можливостями і набором системних команд.

3) OS / 2 є DOS-сумісної операційної системою, що дозволяє запускати програми за допомогою графічного інтерфейсу користувача.

4) Додаткові програми для роботи з пристроями системного обладнання були дуже складні і поглинали багато часу.

5) Операційна система також дозволяє запускати програми, такі як найпростіший текстовий редактор.

6) DOS - найбільш поширена операційна система для персонального комп'ютера.

Questions for group discussion:

1) Why do you think Bill Gates, President of Microsoft Company is one of the richest people on the Earth?

2) Judging from your experience tell if UNIX is used nowadays? What about OS / 2?

3) Ask the students in your group who have experience working with Windows 95 and Windows 98 about the advantages and disadvantages of these operational systems.


Text B: «WINDOWS 95»


Windows 95 is a new operational system with an easy interface based on the expanding windows principle which uses icons to graphically represent files and their types.

Windows 95 makes the way you and your computer interact easy. Most everyday tasks are now easier to accomplish than ever before. For example, the second mouse button has become a powerful weapon. The old Windows 3.0 Program Manager and File Manager have been replaced. The desktop tools that replace them are very like those found on a Macintosh. For example, there is a Recycle Bin that makes it easier to recover accidentally deleted files.

Your computer probably will crash less running Windows 95 than it did with Windows 3.1 and 3.0 or even DOS. Most memory related problems have been removed. Built-in networking features make it easy to reliably share files with co-workers across the room or across the world. And MS-DOS as we know it is so well hidden that you'll rarely give it a thought. Yes, you can still run DOS programs and older Windows applications but most users will probably want to spend most of their time using Windows 95 applications instead.

Microsoft says that it is moving forward to the time when we'll all think more about our data and less about the specific name-brand programs used to create them.

Window 95 plug-and-play capability makes it easy to upgrade your computer hardware. And portable computer users will like what Microsoft has done to make their lives calmer.

A new Windows shortcuts capability makes it easy to reach frequently used files and other necessities. A new Find feature helps you to locate and examine the contents of files in a flash.

Most of this is accomplished without sacrificing performance. In fact, many things (like printing) usually happen faster now, due to 32-bit support and other Windows 95 advancements.

Vocabulary:

to interact - взаємодіяти

to accomplish - виконувати, досягати

weapon - зброя

to replace - заміщувати

Recycle Bin - кошик

to crash - ламатися, давати збої

to remove - видаляти

co-workers - колеги, товариші по службі

rarely - рідко

to plug - підключати

frequently - часто

support - підтримка

necessity - необхідність

flash - спалах, зд. in a flash - моментально

to give smth. a thought - подумати про що-небудь

brand-name - торгова марка

calm - спокійний

shortcut - найкоротший шлях

to sacrifice - жертвувати

advancement - прогрес, просування

General understanding:

1) What is Windows 95?

2) What new principles are used in Windows 95?

3) What is a Recycle Bin feature?

4) What problems has Windows 95 solved?

5) Is it possible to run old DOS programs under Windows 95?

6) What is a «plug-n-play» capability?

7) What is a «shortcut» capability?

8) What is a «Find» feature?

9) Why many things work faster now with Windows 95?

Exercise 9.4. Which of the listed above statements are true / false. Specify your answer using the text.

  1. An «icon» is graphical image that represents file and its type.

  2. Second button is not used in Windows 95 because most people use 1-button mouse.

3) There are no similarities between Macintosh and Windows 95 desktop tools.

4) Windows 95 has some tools which help to communicate with other people through computer network.

5) It's no longer possible to use MS-DOS commands and run MS-DOS files.

6) Microsoft corporation is oriented to produce as many programs as needed to meet people needs and make them buy specific brand-name products.

7) New plug-n-play capability is for those who like to play computer games 24 hours a day and seven days a week.

8) A new shortcut feature is used to cut long programs very short to save disk space.

9) New Find feature helps you to locate the contents of files.

10) It must be mentioned that all new Windows features are possible only because of the low level of performance and quality.

Exercise 9.5. Find the equivalents in the text:

1) Ваш комп'ютер ймовірно буде давати менше збоїв з Віндоуз 95, ніж з більш ранніми версіями і навіть ДОС.

2) Корпорація Майкрософт заявляє, що вона робить все для того, щоб наблизити час, коли ми всі будемо думати більше про наших даних, ніж про конкретні «фірмових» програмах, які використовуються для створення цих даних.

3) Нова функція пошуку дозволяє виявити місце розташування і досліджувати вміст файлу в одну мить.

4) Більшість цих функцій досягнута на шкоду продуктивності.

5) ДОС, яким ми його знаємо, так добре захований, що ви рідко думаєте про його використання.

6) У Віндоуз 95 існує інструмент Кошик, який дозволяє легко відновлювати випадково видалені файли.

7) Інструменти Робочого Столу дуже схожий з інструментами Макінтоша.

8) Друга кнопка миші стала могутньою зброєю.

Exercise 9.6. What is:

1) window

2) icon

3) recycle bin

4) plug-and-play capability

5) shortcut feature

Exercise 9.7. Practice:

1) Start Windows 95. Empty the Recycle Bin. See the free diskspace on drives A and C. See the catalgue of disk C.

2) Resize, maximize and minimize the window. Close the window. Move it, holding the left button.

3) Create a folder COMPUTER. Copy any 2 filesinto it. Rename the folder. Delete two files into the Recycle Bin then recover them. Delete the whole folder.

4) Create a textual file in WordPad program. Save it as TEXT. Rename it as MYFILE. Create a shortcut for it. Put the shortcut on the DeskTOP.

5) Create a picture in Paintbrush program. Save it as MYPICTURE. Create folder PICTURES. Copy file MYPICTURE to the PICTURES folder.

6) QUIT Windows 95.

Questions for group discussion:

1) What are the poor features of Windows 95?

2) Computer society thinks, that Intel company, the most powerful CPU producer, has an agreement with Microsoft corporation that the latter will develop more and more sophisticated, large and demanding software to force users to buy new processors and upgrade their computers. Do you think this might be true? How does this suggestion correlate with the new Windows 2000 and Microsoft Office 2000? Do you think that Bill Gates 'monopoly on Windows operating systems is very dangerous for the competition and price-making process?

3) Ask anyone in the group who has a computer if Windows 98 is better than Windows 2000? Why and why not?


Text C: «INTRODUCTION TO THE WWW AND THE INTERNET»


Millions of people around the world use the Internet to search for and retrieve information on all sorts of topics in a wide variety of areas including the arts, business, government, humanities, news, politics and recreation. People communicate through electronic mail (e-mail), discussion groups, chat channels and other means of informational exchange. They share information and make commercial and business transactions. All this activity is possible because tens of thousands of networks are connected to the Internet and exchange information in the same basic ways.

The World Wide Web (WWW) is a part of the Internet. But it's not a collection of networks. Rather, it is information that is connected or linked together like a web. You access this information through one interface or tool called a Web browser. The number of resources and services that are part of the World Wide Web is growing extremely fast. In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the WWW, and more than half the information that is transferred across the Internet is accessed through the WWW. By using a computer terminal (hardware) connected to a network that is a part of the Internet, and by using a program (software) to browse or retrieve information that is a part of the World Wide Web, the people connected to the Internet and World Wide Web through the local providers have access to a variety of information. Each browser provides a graphical interface. You move from place to place, from site to site on the Web by using a mouse to click on a portion of text, icon or region of a map. These items are called hyperlinks or links. Each link you select represents a document, an image, a video clip or an audio file somewhere on the Internet. The user doesn't need to know where it is, the browser follows the link.

All sorts of things are available on the WWW. One can use Internet for recreational purposes. Many TV and radio stations broadcast live on the WWW. Essentially, if something can be put into digital format and stored in a computer, then it's available on the WWW. You can even visit museums, gardens, cities throughout the world, learn foreign languages ​​and meet new friends. And, of course, you can play computer games through WWW, competing with partners from other countries and continents.

Just a little bit of exploring the World Wide Web will show you what a lot of use and fun it is.

Vocabulary:

World Wide Web - «Всесвітня Павутина»

to retrieve - витягати

variety - різноманітність, спектр

recreation - розвага

network - мережа

to share - ділити

humanities - гуманітарні науки

business transactions - комерційні операції

access - доступ

to browse - розглядати, роздивлятися

browser - браузер (програма пошуку інформації)

to provide - забезпечувати (чим-небудь)

provider - провайдер (компанія, що надає доступ до WWW через місцеві телефонні мережі)

broadcast live - передавати в прямому ефірі site - сторінка, сайт

to link - з'єднувати

hyperlink - гіперпосилання

to compete - змагатися

General understanding:

1) What is Internet used for?

2) Why so many activities such as e-mail and business transactions are possible through the Internet?

3) What is World Wide Web?

4) What is Web browser?

5) What does a user need to have an access to the WWW?

6) What are hyperlinks?

7) What resources are available on the WWW?

8) What are the basic recreational applications of WWW?

Exercise 9.8. Which of the listed below statements are true / false. Specify your answer using the text.

1) There are still not so many users of the Internet.

2) There is information on all sorts of topics on the Internet, including education and weather forecasts.

3) People can communicate through e-mail and chat programs only.

4) Internet is tens of thousands of networks which exchange the information in the same basic way.

5) You can access information available on the World Wide Web through the Web browser.

6) You need a computer (hardware) and a special program (software) to be a WWW user.

7) You move from site to site by clicking on a portion of text only.

8) Every time the user wants to move somewhere on the 'eh he / she needs to step by step enter links and addresses.

9) Films and pictures are not available on the Internet.

10) Radio and TV-broadcasting is a future of Internet. They're not available yet.

Exercise 9.9. Define the following using the vocabulary:

1) Internet

2) World Wide Web

3) Web browser

4) Internet provider

5) Hyperlinks

Exercise 9.10. Find the equivalents:

1) Обсяг ресурсів і послуг, які є частиною WWW, зростає надзвичайно швидко.

2) Кожна посилання, обрана вами представляє документ, графічне зображення, відеокліп або аудіо файл де-то в Інтернет.

3) Інтернет може бути також використаний для цілей розваги.

4) Ви отримуєте доступ до ресурсів Інтернет через інтерфейс або інструмент, який називається веб-браузер.

5) Вся ця діяльність можлива завдяки десяткам тисяч комп'ютерних мереж, підключених до Інтернет та обмінюються інформацією в одному режимі.

6) Користувачі спілкуються через електронну пошту, дискусійні групи, чет-канали (багатоканальний розмову в реальному часі) та інші засоби інформаційного обміну.

Exercise 9.11. Match the following:

1) You access the information through one interface or tool called a. ..

2) People connected to the WWW through the local ... have access to a variety of information.

3) The user doesn't need to know where the site is, the ... follows the ...

4) In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the ...

5) Each ... provides a graphical interface.

6) Local ... charge money for their services to access ... resources.

Words to match with:

1) web browser, providers, link, WWW,

Questions for group discussion:

1) Some people think that Internet is very harmful, especially for young people, because it carries a lot of information about sex, drugs, violence and terrorism. Do you think that some kind of censorship is necessary on the WWW?

2) World famous authors and publishers say that the Internet violates their copyright because Web-programmers put all kinds of books, pictures, music, films and programs free on the Internet and this reduces their sales and profits.

3) Has anyone in your group experience working on the Internet? Ask them 1) about the difficulties they had; 2) useful information retrieved; 3) fun they got? Why so few people have experience working on the Internet?


FAMOUS PEOPLE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Bill Gates

William Henry Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, in 1955.

He is an American business executive, chairman and chief executive officer of the Microsoft Corporation. Gates was the founder of Microsoft in 1975 together with Paul Alien, his partner in computer language development. While attending Harvard in 1975, Gates together with Alien developed a version of the BASIC computer programming language for the first personal computer.

In the early 1980s. Gates led Microsoft's evolution from the developer of computer programming languages ​​to a large computer software company. This transition began with the introduction of MS-DOS, the operating system for the new IBM Personal Computer in 1981. Gates also led Microsoft towards the introduction of application software such as the Microsoft Word processor.

Much of Gates 'success is based on his ability to translate technical visions into market strategy. Although Gates has accumulated great wealth from his holdings of Microsoft stock, he has been known as a tough competitor who seems to value winning in a competitive environment over money. Gates still continues to work personally in product development at Microsoft.


1. ALLOYS


Bronze and brass, the first alloys in the history of metallurgy, were probably obtained by man accidentally when melting mixed metal ores. Much later alloys of iron were obtained.

Steel was made ​​in small quantities in early times until the mid-19th century when it was manufactured on a large scale in the iron and steel industry.

The commercial production of pure aluminium in about 1890 began a new range of alloys and among them duralumin, an alloy of about 94 per cent aluminium, with small quantities of copper, manganese, magnesium, and silicon. Most of aluminium alloys are both light and strong.

Nickel is often mixed with other metals for special purposes: permalloy is a nickel-iron alloy that is magnetically soft. The polarity of its magnetic field can be easily changed and it is used for transformer cores. Monel metals contain about two parts nickel to one part copper, plus other elements. They are stronger than nickel and extremely corrosion-resistant. These properties make them useful in chemical production.

Electrum is a natural or artificial alloy of gold and silver containing 15-45 per cent of silver. It was used in the ancient world for coinage.

Bismuth is frequently used as a part of alloys with low melting-points. Today alloys can be designed for particular applications with certain properties.


2. MANUFACTURING OF PLASTICS


The manufacture of plastic and plastic products involves procuring the raw materials, synthesizing the basic polymer, compounding the polymer into a material useful for fabrication, and moulding or shaping the plastic into its final form.

Raw Materials

Originally, most plastics were made ​​from resins derived from vegetable matter, such as cellulose (from cotton), oils (from seeds), starch derivatives, or coal. Casein (from milk) was among the nonvegetable materials used. Although the production of nylon was originally based on coal, air, and water, and nylon 11 is still based on oil from castor beans, most plastics today are derived from petrochemicals. These oil-based raw materials are relatively widely available and inexpensive. However, because the world supply of oil is limited, other sources of raw materials, such as coal gasification, are being explored.

Synthesizing the Polymer

The first stage in manufacturing plastic is polymerization. As noted, the two basic polymerization methods are condensation and addition reactions. These methods may be carried out in various ways. In bulk polymerization, the pure monomer alone is polymerized, generally either in the gaseous or liquid phase, although a few solid-state polymerizations are also used. In solution polymerization, an emulsion is formed and then coagulated. In interfacial polymerization, the monomers are dissolved in two immiscible liquids, and the polymerization occurs at the interface of the two liquids.

Additives

Chemical additives are often used in plastics to produce some desired characteristic. For instance, antioxidants protect a polymer from chemical degradation by oxygen or ozone; similarly, ultraviolet stabilizers protect against weathering. Plasticizers make a polymer more flexible, lubricants reduce problems with friction, and pigments add colour. Among other additives are flame retardants and antistatics.

Many plastics are manufactured as composites. This involves a system where reinforcing material (usually fibres made ​​of glass or carbon) is added to a plastic resin matrix. Composites have strength and stability comparable to that of metals but generally with less weight. Plastic foams, which are composites of plastic and gas, offer bulk with low weight.

Shaping and Finishing

The techniques used for shaping and finishing plastics depend on three factors: time, temperature, and flow (also known as deformation). Many of the processes are cyclic in nature, although some fall into the categories of continuous or semicontinuous operation.

One of the most widely used operations is that of extrusion. An extruder is a device that pumps a plastic through a desired die or shape. Extrusion products, such as pipes, have a regularly shaped cross section. The extruder itself also serves as the means to carry out other operations, such as blow moulding and injection moulding. In extrusion blow moulding, the extruder fills the mould with a tube, which is then cut off and clamped to form a hollow shape called a parison. The hot, molten parison is then blown like a balloon and forced against the walls of the mould to form the desired shape. In injection moulding, one or more extruders are used with reciprocating screws that move forwards to inject the melt and then retract to take on new molten material to continue the process. In injection blow moulding, which is used in making bottles for carbonated drinks, the parison is first injection moulded and then reheated and blown.

In compression moulding, pressure forces the plastic into a given shape. Another process, transfer moulding, is a hybrid of injection and compression moulding: the molten plastic is forced by a ram into a mould. Other finishing processes include calendering, in which plastic sheets are formed, and sheet forming, in which the plastic sheets are formed into a desired shape. Some plastics, particularly those with very high temperature resistance, require special fabrication procedures. For example, polytetrafluoroethene (Teflon) has such a high melt viscosity that it is first pressed into shape and then sintered-exposed to extremely high temperatures that bond it into a cohesive mass without melting it. Some polyamides are produced by a similar process.

Uses

Plastics have an ever-widening range of uses in both the industrial and consumer sectors.

Packaging

The packaging industry is a leading user of plastics. Much LDPE (low-density polyethene) is marketed in rolls of clear-plastic wrap. High-density polyethene (HPDE) is used for some thicker plastic films, such as those used for plastic waste bags and containers. Other packaging plastics include polypropene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyvinylidene chloride. Polyvinylidene chloride is used primarily for its barrier properties, which can keep gases such as oxygen from passing into or out of a package. Similarly, polypropene is an effective barrier against water vapour. Polypropene is also often used in housewares and as a fibre for carpeting and rope.

Construction

The building industry is a major consumer of plastics, including many of the packaging plastics mentioned above. HDPE is used for pipes, as is PVC. PVC is also used in sheets for building materials and similar items. Many plastics are used to insulate cables and wires, and polystyrene in the form of foam serves as insulation for walls, roofs, and other areas. Other plastic products are roofing, door and window frames, mouldings, and hardware.

Other Uses

Many other industries, especially motor manufacturing, also depend on plastics. Tough engineering plastics are found in vehicle components like fuel lines, fuel pumps, and electronic devices. Plastics are also used for interior panelling, seats, and trim. Many car bodies are made ​​of fibreglass-reinforced plastic.

Among the other uses of plastic are housings for business machines, electronic devices, small appliances, and tools. Consumer goods range from sports equipment to luggage and toys


3. PRINCIPLES AND PROCESS OF POLYMERISATION IN PLASTICS PRODUCTION


Condensation polymerisation and addition polymerisation are the two main processes in plastics production. The manufacture of plastics depends upon the building of chains and networks during polymerisation.

A condensation polymer is formed by a synthesis that involves the gradual reaction of reactive molecules with one another, with the elimination of small molecules such as water. The reaction gradually slows down as polymers are built up.

An addition polymer forms chains by the linking of small identical units without elimination of small molecules.

The most important concept in condensation polymers is that of «functionality», ie, the number of reactive groups in each molecule participating in the chain buildup. Each molecule must have at least two reactive groups, of which hydroxyl (-OH), acidic endings (-COOH), and amine endings (-NH) are the simplest.

Hydroxyl is characteristic of alcohol endings, combining with an acid ending to give an ester, the polymer being known as a polyester. Examples are polyethylene terephthalate obtained by reaction of ethylene glycol containing hydroxyl groups at each end and terephthalic acid containing two acidic groups and polycarbonate resins.

Alcohols are a particular class of oxygen-containing chemical compounds with a structure analogous to ethyl alcohol (C-HOH). Amines are various compounds derived from ammonia by replacement of hydrogen by one or more hydrocarbon radicals (molecular groups that act as a unit). Esters are compounds formed by the reaction between an acid and an alcohol or phenol with the elimination of water.

Bulk addition polymerization of pure monomers is mainly confined to styrene and methyl methacrylate The process is highly exothermic, or heat producing. The dissipation of heat (necessary to maintain chain length) is achieved in the case of styrene by intensive stirring of the viscous, partially polymerized mixture, which is then passed down a tower through zones of increasing temperature. Alternatively, polymerization may be completed in containers that are small enough to avoid an excessive temperature rise as a result of the heat released during polymerization.

Methyl methacrylate is also partially polymerized before being poured into molds consisting of between sheets of plate glass, to produce clear acrylic sheet.

Ethylene is polymerized in tubular reactors about 30 metres long and less than 25 millimetres in diameter at pressures of 600-3,000 to give 10-20 percent conversion to low-density polyethylene. Residual gas is recycled.

Polymerization of monomers in solution allows easy temperature control, but the molecular weight of polymers formed is reduced because of chain transfer reactions

Solvent removal from such a solution may also be very difficult. The process can be applied advantageously to vinyl acetate and acrylic esters.

Suspension polymerization producing beads of plastic is extensively applied to styrene, methyl methacrylate, vinyl chloride, and vinyl acetate. The monomer, in which the initiator or catalyst must be soluble, is maintained in droplet form suspended in water by agitation in the presence of a stabilizer such as gelatin, each droplet of monomer undergoing bulk polymerization.

In emulsion polymerization the monomer is dispersed in water by means of a surface-active agent (a substance slightly soluble in water that reduces the surface tension of a liquid), its bulk aggregating into tiny particles held in suspension. The monomer enters the hydrocarbon part of the surface-active micelles and is polymerized there by a water-soluble catalyst.

This process is particularly useful for the preparation of very high molecular weight polymers.

Exposure of certain substances to X-ray or ultraviolet radiation initiates chain reactions that can be used for manufacture of such thermoplastics as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride.


4. RESINS


Resins that cannot be softened by heating include the phenolics, furan resins, aminoplastics, alkyds, allyls, epoxy resins, polyurethanes, some polyesters, and silicones.

Phenolics or phenol-aldehydes

The important commercial phenolic resin Bakelite is based on phenol and formaldehyde. The two processes in general use are the one-step process producing resol resins (the first stage in the formation of a phenolic resin) that are either liquid or brittle, soluble, fu